Delaying emergence of Trichogramma spp. is critical for commercial production. Here, diapause induction was considered for three species (Trichogramma nr. brassicae Bezdenko, Trichogramma carverae Oatman & Pinto, and Trichogramma funiculatum Carver), and the effect of storage temperature (4°C, 8°C, and 10°C) and time (1–8 wk) was investigated for T. carverae. For all species, percentage of emergence was lowered after an initial diapause induction period (28 d at 14°C and a photoperiod of 8:16 [L:D] h) and lowered further after 1-mo storage at 3°C and a photoperiod of 0:24 (L:D) h. No wasps emerged after 2 mo of storage, suggesting that true diapause was not induced. The effect of 1–8-wk storage on wasp quality was investigated for T. carverae both in the laboratory and the field. Initial fieldwork suggested that this species could be successfully stored at 10°C under continuous light (after 5-d development at 25°C and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h) without reducing the ability of wasps to parasitize eggs in the field. In a second experiment, storage temperatures lower than 10°C and storage times 3 wk or longer had a negative impact on emergence and longevity, and effects were not additive. Negative effects may partly reflect size changes, because size decreased in response to storage time, and there was an interaction between time and temperature effects on size. Storage time was the major factor influencing fecundity and field success; both fitness measures were reduced after storage of 3 wk or longer. T. carverae can therefore be successfully stored for up to 2 wk without detrimental effects, and 10°C is the preferred storage temperature. T. carverae seems to survive unfavorable temperature conditions by entering a state of quiescence.
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Vol. 97 • No. 2