The frequency of the L1014 F kdr mutation was determined in 14 field populations of house flies, Musca domestica L., with resistance factors at LD50 for pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide and bioresmethrin/piperonyl butoxide from 4 to 29 and 2 to 98, respectively. A polymerase chain reaction test for identifying kdr homo- or heterozygote house flies was used to determine the frequency of kdr. The L1014 F allele was found in all populations tested. The frequency of kdr in the field populations was high and varied from 0.46 to 0.99. Eleven of the populations were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, whereas two strains had higher number of heterozygotes than expected, indicating a possible heterozygote advantage. The frequency of kdr was strongly correlated with the reduced mortality observed in the bioassays with pyrethrum and bioresmethrin synergized by piperonyl butoxide. This indicates that kdr is a major mechanism for pyrethroid resistance in these field populations. Five field populations had resistance factors >25 and >10 for bioresmethrin/piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide, respectively. The frequencies of kdr in these five populations varied from 0.89 to 0.99. The frequencies of kdr in the field populations showing no or a low level of resistance had frequencies of kdr from 0.46 to 0.75, which indicates that the L1014 F kdr allele is a fully recessive genetic trait in house flies. We have shown that the molecular diagnostic PASA method to determine the resistance phenotypes and the frequency of kdr is a powerful tool, which could be used to get information to make recommendations about pest and resistance management.
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Vol. 97 • No. 3