The toxicity of spinosad was determined in one susceptible and five insecticide-resistant laboratory strains of house fly, Musca domestica L. Spinosad was relatively slow-acting, but highly toxic to house flies. In a feeding bioassay, spinosad LC50 at 72 h was 0.51 μg of spinosad per gram of sugar, making it 6.3- and 3.5-fold more toxic to house flies compared with azamethiphos and methomyl, respectively. In topical application bioassay, the LD50 at 48 h of spinosad in susceptible house flies was 40 ng per 20 mg of house fly, making spinosad less toxic than the pyrethroid bioresmethrin synergized by piperonyl butoxide and the organophosphate dimethoate. The insecticide-resistant laboratory strains had resistance factors to spinosad at LC50 in feeding bioassay from 1.5 to 5.5 and at LD50 in topical application bioassay from 2.5 to 4.7, indicating that in house fly cross-resistance to the major insecticide classes will not initially be of major concern for the use of spinosad for house fly control. The toxicity of spinosad was also evaluated against 31 field populations of house flies collected from livestock farms across Denmark. The field populations were 2.2- to 7.5-fold resistant to spinosad at 72 h in feeding bioassay, but based on steep slopes in the bioassay and the limited variation of spinosad toxicity against the various field populations, we consider the field populations to be spinosad-susceptible. We propose a diagnostic dose of 12 μg of spinosad per gram of sugar in feeding bioassay with impregnated sugar for determination of resistant house flies, which is 10× the LC95 of the susceptible strain WHO and ≈2× the LD95 of the field populations. Spinosad showed no substantial cross-resistance to the pyrethroid bioresmethrin synergized by piperonyl butoxide, the anticholinesterases dimethoate, azamethiphos, methomyl, and spinosad in house fly field populations.
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Vol. 97 • No. 3