Toxicity of three biopesticides, i.e., two neem products and spinosad, was determined on foliage-dwelling life stages of Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major thrips pest on tomatoes, Lycopersicon spp., in central Thailand. Direct and residual contact toxicities of NeemAzal-TS (1% azadirachtin) and systemic activity of NeemAzal-MD 5 (5% azadirachtin) affected the survival of first larval stage (L1) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, neither second larval stage (L2) nor adult survival was influenced by both neem products. On the contrary, spinosad caused 100% mortality in both larval stages and adults of C. claratris regardless of the concentrations tested. No strong ovicidal effects were detected in three different age groups of eggs (i.e., 1, 2, and 3 d old) topically treated with both NeemAzal-TS and spinosad. Residual toxicity was highest with fresh residues of NeemAzal-TS compared with 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-d-old residues and in general was higher under laboratory than greenhouse conditions. Irrespective of the age of the spray residues, spinosad always caused 100% mortality in larvae and adults. Strongest systemic effects were observed in L1 larvae 1 d after soil drenching with NeemAzal-MD 5 at the highest concentration tested. Foliar and soil applications of NeemAzal-TS and NeemAzal-MD 5, respectively, did not cause any oviposition deterrent effects.
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Vol. 98 • No. 2