The purpose of this work was to analyze the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner on the control of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Phyllocnistidae) in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory, four B. thuringiensis were used: Dipel (commercial formulation) tested at the concentrations of 25 × 106 and 25 × 108 spores/ml and the isolates K, 6, and 15 (collections of the University of Azores) at the concentration of 25 × 106 spores/ml. A surfactant solution of nonoxinol also was tested with or without the different suspensions of B. thuringiensis. Leaves of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck with second or third instars of leafminer larvae were used in all tests. Bacterial suspensions were applied topically on the surface of intact leaf mines or by injection inside the mine, near the head of the leafminer. When injecting both concentrations of Dipel into the mines, mortality of the leafminers increased compared with the topical application, although no significant differences were observed. The addition of the nonoxinol to the Dipel suspension, applied topically, increased the effect of B. thuringiensis, but differences were not significant. The mortality of the leafminers treated only with the nonoxinol solution increased significantly 48 h after treatment, compared with the control group, suggesting an insecticidal effect of this surfactant when used at a concentration of 0.01%. All the tested B. thuringiensis were equally active against the leafminer, either when applied topically or by mine injection. Field trials showed a significant difference between larval mortality of the control group and the results observed at the trees treated with B. thuringiensis 48 h after treatments.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 98 • No. 6