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1 August 2006 Screening of Different Adjuvants for Wastewater/Wastewater Sludge-Based Bacillus thuringiensis Formulations
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Screening of different adjuvants, namely, suspending agents, phagostimulants, stickers, antimicrobial agents, and UV screens to develop aqueous biopesticidal suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) variety kurstaki HD-1 fermented broths, specifically, nonhydrolyzed sludge, hydrolyzed sludge, starch industry wastewater, and soya (commercial medium), were investigated. The selected suspending agents [20% (wt:vol)] included sorbitol, sodium monophosphate, and sodium metabisulfite with corresponding suspendibility of 74–92, 69–85, and 71–82%, respectively. Molasses [0.2% (wt:vol)] increased adherence by 84–90% for all fermented broths. The optimal phagostimulants [0.5% (wt:vol)], namely, soya and molasses, caused entomotoxicity increase of 3–13 and 7–13%, respectively. Sorbic and propionic acids showed high antimicrobial action [0.5% (wt:vol)], irrespective of fermentation medium. Sodium lignosulfonate, molasses, and Congo red, when used as UV screens [0.2% (wt:vol)], showed percent corresponding entomotoxicity losses of 3–5, 0.5–5 and 2–16, respectively. The Bt formulations, when exposed to UV radiation, showed higher half-lives (with and without UV screens) than the fermented broths or semisynthetic soya medium and commercial Bt formulation. UV screen-amended nonhydrolyzed, hydrolyzed, and starch industry wastewater formulations showed 1.3–1.5-fold higher half-lives than commercial Bt formulation. Thus, the recommended formulation comprises sorbitol, sodium monophosphate, sodium metabisulfite (suspending agents); molasses, soya flour (phagostimulants); molasses and skimmed milk powder (rainfasteners); sorbic and propionic acids (antimicrobial agents) and sodium lignosulfate; and molasses and Congo red (UV screens). These waste-based Bt formulations offer better UV resistance in comparison with commercial formulation.

Satinder K. Brar, M. Verma, R. D. Tyagi, J. R. Valéro, and R. Y. Surampalli "Screening of Different Adjuvants for Wastewater/Wastewater Sludge-Based Bacillus thuringiensis Formulations," Journal of Economic Entomology 99(4), 1065-1079, (1 August 2006).
Received: 2 November 2005; Accepted: 1 February 2006; Published: 1 August 2006

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