Field experiments quantified the effect of synthetic pheromone release-site density and distribution on 1) orientational disruption of male codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to pheromone-baited traps; and 2) fruit injury. A clustering test varied pheromone release-site density from 0 to 1,000 Isomate-C Plus dispensers per ha while maintaining the total number of dispensers at 1,000. Percentage of orientational disruption of pheromone-baited traps increased significantly as a function of increasing density of release sites. Fruit injury decreased as the density of release sites increased and was lowest in plots treated with Isomate-C Plus dispensers distributed as 1,000 point sources per ha. We also manipulated point source density of 0.1-ml paraffin-wax drops containing 5% codlemone [(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol], and thus the total amount of pheromone deployed per hectare. The percentage of disruption of traps baited with either 1.0- or 0.1-mg codlemone lures increased with increasing density of wax drops deployed. Both trapping and field observations confirmed that wax drops were attractive to male codling moths, suggesting that disruption was mediated by competitive attraction. Development of dispensers that can be mechanically applied at high densities has potential to improve the efficacy and economics of codling moth disruption at high population densities.
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Vol. 99 • No. 4