We investigated the efficacy of various chemical injections against Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in hardwood shipping pallets. We had three principle interests: efficacy in whole structures, relative efficacy of the active ingredients, and whether acoustic evidence augmented treatment site selection. Infested pallets were delineated into boards with four monitoring sites each. Six chemical treatments were compared: chlorpyrifos aerosol, aqueous disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), resmethrin aerosol, distilled water (control), and two treatments of spinosad SC (one treatment applied based upon visual and the other treatment upon acoustic [AE] evidence). Individual boards were split apart; efficacy was determined by percentage mortality and pre- and posttreatment AE counts. Injections were constrained to a single point per board with the greatest level of termite activity. In whole pallets, mean percentage mortality ranged from 53.3 to 58.7% for the visual and AE spinosad treatments, respectively, whereas water averaged 6.8%. Remaining treatment mortalities were 33.2, 30.4, and 18.1% for chlorpyrifos, DOT, and resmethrin, respectively. Analysis of whole-pallet data indicated that none of the insecticides produced commercially acceptable mortality; localized injections of insecticides were not comparable with whole-structure treatments. We delineated independent groups of board sections (sectional aggregates; SA) that were connected by galleries. When treated SA were analyzed, spinosad and DOT treatments were significantly different from controls, whereas remaining treatments were not different from controls or spinosad and DOT. AE readings and visual termite evidence were compared with presence or absence of termites in SA, and it was determined that both AE and visual evidence were effective predictors of termite presence.
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Vol. 99 • No. 4