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1 September 2006 Relative Sensitivity of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Life-stages to Two Copper Sources
Alan J. Kennedy, Rod N. Millward, Jeffery A. Steevens, John W. Lynn, Karen D. Perry
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While chemical control of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) has proven effective in closed systems, the high dosages required for adult eradication restricts the use of chemical-based strategies in field management plans. One option is to identify the most chemical-sensitive life stage and tailor management techniques to control that life stage. This would optimize target efficacy while minimizing chemical release into the environment, risk to non-target species, and cost of chemical required. In this study, the relative sensitivity of D. polymorpha life stages was investigated from free gametes to 72-h old trochophores and adults, using cupric sulfate (CuSO4) and the algaecide, Cutrine®-Ultra. In both forms of copper exposure, early life stages were orders of magnitude more sensitive than adults. For example, the highest 24-h LC50 value for the early life stages to Cutrine®-Ultra was 13 μg Cu/L, while the adult 48-h LC50 value was 1,214 μg Cu/L. Moreover, adults were highly resistant to short-term (24 h) exposures of Cutrine®-Ultra, even at much higher concentrations (4,630 μg Cu/L), while 24-h old D. polymorpha larvae showed 99% mortality after only 52 minutes of exposure to 331 μg Cu/L as Cutrine®-Ultra, a concentration well within the permitted label application. There were only marginal differences in sensitivity to CuSO4 and Cutrine®-Ultra for larvae tested after fertilization; it is possible that Cutrine®-Ultra is more toxic than CuSO4 at fertilization. Chemical management strategies targeting early larval stages of D. polymorpha are likely more cost-efficient and less prone to non-target environmental impact than strategies aimed at adults.

Alan J. Kennedy, Rod N. Millward, Jeffery A. Steevens, John W. Lynn, and Karen D. Perry "Relative Sensitivity of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Life-stages to Two Copper Sources," Journal of Great Lakes Research 32(3), 596-606, (1 September 2006).[596:RSOZMD]2.0.CO;2
Received: 30 November 2005; Accepted: 1 June 2006; Published: 1 September 2006

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chemical control
Larval sensitivity
zebra mussel
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