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1 March 2010 Lead in Lake Michigan and Green Bay Surficial Sediments
Erika L. Pfeiffer, Ronald Rossmann
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Sediment samples were collected in 1987–1990 from Green Bay and in 1994–1996 from Lake Michigan. Surficial sediments (0–1 cm) from both locations were analyzed for lead for the purpose of describing the horizontal variation of lead in 1994–1996 Lake Michigan and 1987–1990 Green Bay sediments, estimating lead fluxes to surficial sediments, and comparing results to earlier studies. With Lake Michigan concentrations ranging from below the method detection limit to 180 µg/g, the surficial sediments had mean and median lead concentrations of 70 µg/g and 64 µg/g, respectively. Lead concentrations in Green Bay surficial sediments were similar to those in Lake Michigan and ranged between the method detection limit and 160 µg/g. For the bay, mean and median concentrations were 58 and 59 µg/g, respectively. Surficial lead concentrations were highest in the Southern, Waukegan, and Grand Haven basins of Lake Michigan and in the central region of Green Bay in the vicinity of Chambers Island. For Lake Michigan and Green Bay, dated sediment cores illustrate the decline in lead concentrations during the last 30 and 10 years, respectively. Lead fluxes ranged between <0.049 and 7.2 µg/cm2/yr for Green Bay and between 0.47 and 20 µg/cm2/yr for Lake Michigan. Lead fluxes to Lake Michigan were lower than those reported for 1972. These are the most comprehensive fluxes of lead to Lake Michigan and Green Bay surficial sediments reported to date.

Published by Elsevier B.V.
Erika L. Pfeiffer and Ronald Rossmann "Lead in Lake Michigan and Green Bay Surficial Sediments," Journal of Great Lakes Research 36(1), 20-27, (1 March 2010).
Received: 19 November 2008; Accepted: 20 September 2009; Published: 1 March 2010

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