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30 May 2022 Evaluation of the Safety of Multiple Intramuscular Doses of Ketoprofen in Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps)
Annabelle Vigneault, Stéphane Lair, Carolyn Gara-Boivin, Guy Beauchamp, Claire Vergneau-Grosset
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Abstract

Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 has been shown to increase significantly in inflamed ophidian skin and chelonian muscles. Nonselective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors, such as ketoprofen, could therefore reduce inflammation more effectively than preferential COX-2 inhibitors in reptiles. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential adverse effects of ketoprofen in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Thirteen adult bearded dragons were divided into three groups receiving daily intramuscular injections for 14 days in a blinded randomized study design. Group 1 (n = 5) received saline, Group 2 (n = 4) received ketoprofen at 2 mg/kg (diluted 1:10 with saline) and Group 3 (n = 4) received ketoprofen at 20 mg/kg (undiluted). Biochemical values, fecal occult blood (FOB) tests, and blood clotting time were assessed before and after the 2-wk treatment. Renal, digestive, hepatic, and muscular histopathology was evaluated. Clinically, injection-site reactions were noted in Group 3 only (n = 1/4). No other clinical adverse effects were detected. No changes were detected in plasma biochemical values and clotting times before and after treatments, nor were changes detected between control and treatment groups. No lesion associated with ketoprofen toxicity was detected on histologic examination of the kidney, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Lesions of muscular necrosis at the injection sites were of higher magnitude in Group 3 compared to Group 1. In conclusion, daily intramuscular administration of diluted ketoprofen at 2 mg/kg for 14 days did not cause adverse effects in a small number of bearded dragons, whereas severe muscular necrosis was detected at 20 mg/kg.

Annabelle Vigneault, Stéphane Lair, Carolyn Gara-Boivin, Guy Beauchamp, and Claire Vergneau-Grosset "Evaluation of the Safety of Multiple Intramuscular Doses of Ketoprofen in Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps)," Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 32(2), 123-129, (30 May 2022). https://doi.org/10.5818/JHMS-D-21-00030
Published: 30 May 2022
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
analgesia
antinociception
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
pain management
Pogona vitticeps
reptile
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