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1 March 2004 Reproduction in Three Species of Smilisca from Costa Rica
John H. Malone
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The reproductive modes for Smilisca puma, Smilisca sila, and Smilisca sordida are reported for the first time. Smilisca puma has the generalized reproductive mode of anurans with eggs deposited as a surface film in lentic water. Smilisca sila and S. sordida have the basin construction reproductive mode. Smilisca sila constructs an open depression and deposits eggs within the depression. Basins of S. sordida consist of three types: (1) basins with eggs attached to the substrate (AE); (2) basins with eggs floating on the surface of the water (FE); and (3) eggs buried beneath the substrate. Length of AE basins was, on average 10% longer than FE basins. The area in which eggs were buried was about 1.5 times greater in basins with buried eggs than other basins. Eggs of S. sordida are also deposited in streams indicating that basin building is a facultative behavior for this species. The frequency of basin types varied spatially and temporally during the reproductive season. More basins were constructed on islands than on stream banks. Open basins were the most common type of basin observed during the middle of the reproductive season, whereas eggs deposited in the absence of basins only occurred at the beginning of the reproductive season.

John H. Malone "Reproduction in Three Species of Smilisca from Costa Rica," Journal of Herpetology 38(1), 27-35, (1 March 2004).
Accepted: 1 October 2003; Published: 1 March 2004

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