Pedioplanis burchelli is a small oviparous lacertid lizard that inhabits rocky montane areas in the highveld grassland biome of South Africa. We studied its reproductive cycle by monthly monitoring of gravimetric, morphometric, and histological changes of the reproductive system of males and females throughout 1999. Reproduction took place in spring/summer, and gonadal activity of males and females was well synchronized and prenuptial. Photoperiod was the best predictor of seasonal fluctuations in testes mass and rainfall in the case of ovarian seasonality. Neither vitellogenic follicle count nor oviducal egg count were correlated with snout–vent length. Sexual size dimorphism with respect to certain body parts is explained either in terms of sexual selection, differential growth, or intraspecific food niche segregation. The absence of a significant difference in incidence in damaged tails between males and females may be indicative of similar levels of predation pressure.
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