Rhinella ocellata is a relatively unknown species of toad that occurs in Brazilian cerrado, a savanna-like biome. We studied home range and calling behavior of a population of this species in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, in 2004. Unlike most other species of bufonids, male R. ocellata did not migrate to ponds or other aquatic sites and form choruses for reproduction. Instead, R. ocellata had a prolonged breeding period during which males called from terrestrial sites typically on bare sandy soil near grass clumps or other shrubby vegetation. Calling sites were within open gallery forest in cerrado and ranged from 10–64 m from the shoreline of a river; similar calling sites were observed at another site in Tocantins in 2005. Home-range size was small compared to other toads that have been studied. Most individual R. ocellata remained within a small area during the study, typically calling nightly except during hot, dry periods. Calling bouts of R. ocellata consisted of an average of 36.9 short calls with fairly long intervals between bouts. Calling bout length averaged 31 sec. Neighboring individuals frequently alternated calls. One clutch of eggs found in a backwater pool of the river was tentatively identified as that of R. ocellata. The derived breeding behavior of R. ocellata is consistent with the historical difficulty in placing this species phylogenetically.
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