Chemical communication is important in aquatic environments, particularly where visual and acoustical signals are limited. Both larval (tadpole) and adult anurans (frogs and toads) use waterborne chemical signals for many activities. Adult anurans commonly rely on acoustical communication for sex recognition and mating; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that anurans also may use aquatic sex pheromones for localization of potential mates. We provide an overview of how the anuran nasal cavity reorganizes during metamorphosis from the larval to the adult stage. Also, we focus on the behavior of reproductive anurans in response to chemical information detected by olfaction of waterborne chemical cues. Overall, we synthesize the current literature on anuran sex pheromones and chemical communication in the aquatic environment.
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