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The white backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 47 populations sampled from 14 prefectures of the Greater Mekong Subregion. A total of 14 selected primers yielded 121 bright and discernible bands, with an average of 8.6 bands per primer. According to the hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), the genetic variation among geographic regions (79.84%) was higher than that of among populations within region (20.16%), and the FST value was 0.72, indicating a high level of genetic differentiation. Neighbor-Joining cluster analysis of the 47 populations showed two major clusters, one consisting of mostly southwestern Yunnan Province and Myanmar populations; and the other one consisting of southeastern and central of Yunnan Province plus Vietnam and Laos populations. No significant positive correlation was observed between genetic and geographic distances by Mantel test (r = 0.2230, p = 0.8448), indicating the role of geographic isolation did not shape the genetic structure of the sampled S. furcifera populations. This paper provides useful data for understanding and speculating the migration of S. furcifera and reveals available information to develop sustainable strategies for manage this long-range migratory pest.