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A new method for rearing honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in vitro was developed and the effects of sugar concentrations on survival and development were studied. Seven different glucose (G) and fructose (F) compositions (0%G 0%F, 3%G 3%F, 6%G 6%F, 12%G 12%F, 0%G 12%F, 12%G 0%F, and 4%G 8%F) were tested. Larvae were able to grow to the post defecation stage without addition of sugars (Diet 1), but they were not able to metamorphose and pupate. Adults were reared from diets 2–7. The average larval survival, prepupal larval weights, adult weights, and ovariole numbers were affected significantly due to the sugar compositions in the diets. High sugar concentrations (12%G 12%F) increased the number of queens and intercastes.