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The Anthocoris nemorum group belongs to the Anthocoridae (Hemiptera), and is an important group of predators of agricultural pests. A phylogeny was constructed in conjunction with dispersal-vicariance analysis of the Anthocoris nemorum group species in order to discern the relationships between the phylogeographical structuring of A. nemorum group species, and the effects of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau uplift. The divergence times were estimated using Bayesian inference as implemented in BEAST. A portion of the mitochondrial COI gene (1406 bp) and 16S rDNA (932 bp) were chosen as molecular markers to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among 10 species in this group. The combined approach, based on phylogeny, estimation of node dates, and dispersal-vicariance analyses, indicated that the phylogeographical structuring of A. nemorum has been primarily shaped by the two main periods of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau uplift. The DIVA optimal reconstructions suggest that A. nemorum diversified from the Miocene to the Pleistocene from a center of origin in the Hengduan Mountains. The rapid uplift of Mountain ranges associated with the uplift of the entire Qinghai-Tibet plateau may have promoted rapid divergence in the A. nemorum group. Vicariance and dispersal were both essential in shaping the present distribution patterns of A. nemorum.