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Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) play pivotal roles in cellular signaling, gene transcription, and lipid metabolism in vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, a putative FABP gene, referred to as AccFABP, was isolated from the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae). The full-length cDNA consisted of 725 bp, and encoded a protein of 204 amino acids. Homology and phylogenetic analysis indicated that AccFABP was a member of the FABP multifamily. The genomic structure of this gene, which was common among FABP multifamily members, spanned 1,900 bp, and included four exons and three introns. Gene expression analysis revealed that AccFABP was highly expressed in the dark-pigmented phase of pupal development, with peak expression observed in the fat bodies of the dark-pigmented phase pupae. The AccFABP transcripts in the fat body were upregulated by exposure to dietary fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. Transcription factor binding sites for Caudal-Related Homeobox and functional CCAAT/enhancer binding site, which were respectively associated with tissue expression and lipid metabolism, were detected in the 5′ promoter sequence. The evidence provided in the present study suggests that AccFABP may regulate insect growth and development, and lipid metabolism.