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1 February 2014 Keys to the Species of Mydaeinae (Diptera: Muscidae) from China, with the Description of Four New Species
Wan-Qi Xue, Xu Tian
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Abstract

Four new species of Mydaeinae, Mydaea franzosternita n. sp., Myospila apicaliciliola n. sp., Myospila maoershanensis n. sp., and Myospila subflavipennis n. sp., are described and illustrated here for the first time. A key to the genus of Mydaeinae from China and keys to species of genera from Mydaeinae are provided.

Introduction

Mydaeinae is a subfamily of Muscidae in Diptera, with more than 380 species currently known worldwide and represented by 129 species in China. They are distributed all over the world, with the majority distributed in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Some scholars have studied the species of the Mydaeinae, such as Hennig (1957), Huckett (1965), Emden (1965), Vockeroth (1972), Pont (1977, 1980, 1986, 1989), Shinonaga (2003), and Carvalho (2005), and since the 1980s, many species have been described from China and summarized by many scholars, such as Ma (1986, 2002), Wei (1991, 1992, 1994, 2010, 2011, 2012), Fan (1992), Xue (1983, 1996, 1998, 2012), Feng (2000, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009), and Wang (2013). The species of Mydaeinae can be recognized by the following characters: frontal vitta without interfrontal setae; the lower margin of posterior spiracle without seta; meron bare, with thin and short hair at most, katepisternal setae not situated with triangular; anepimeral bare, vein Sc curved as arc-shaped; post surface of hind coxa without hairs, hind tibia without pd, anterodorsal bristles apically long, longer than its diameter at least.

In the present paper, four new species, namely Mydaea franzosternita n. sp., Myospila apicaliciliola n. sp., Myospila maoershanensis n. sp., and Myospila subflavipennis n. sp. are described. A key to genus of Mydaeinae from China and keys to species of genera from Mydaeinae are provided.

Materials and Methods

The specimens examined for this paper were collected by sweeping from brushwood in the mountainous regions of northeast, southeast, and central China, and were collected with hand nets. Genitalic structures were detached from the body, cleared by warming in a 10% NaOH solution (approximately 100°C) for several minutes, placed in a droplet of glycerol, and observed under a compound light microscope. Terminology of external morphology and of the male terminalia follows McAlpine (1981).

The type specimens studied in this paper are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Absolute measurements are used for the body length in millimeters (mm). Abreviations used for characters are: ors = orbital seta; ori = frontal seta; acr = acrostichal seta; prst-acr = anterior-acrostichal seta; post-acr = postacrostichal seta; dc = dorsocentral seta; prstdc = anterior dorsocentral seta; post-dc = posterior dorsocentral seta; ial = intra-alar seta; pra = prealar seta; p = posterior bristle; v = ventral bristles; ad = anterodorsal seta; pd = posterodorsal seta; av = anteroventral seta; pv = posteroventral seta; Sc = subcosta; Mt. = mountain.

Nomenclature

This publication and the nomenclature it contains have been registered in ZooBank. The LSID number is: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D2171D52-871F-4034-BA4F-32E57A141F90. It can be found online by inserting the LSID number after  www.zoobank.com/.

Taxonomy

Key to genus of Mydaeinae from China (Males)

1. Radial node bare 2

- Radial node with hairs 3

2. Sternite 1 with hairs Gymnodia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863

- Sternite 1 bare Hebecnema Schnabl, 1889

3. Pra present and strong 4

- Pra absent or trichoid 6

4. Fore tibia without pv Mydaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

- Fore tibia with pv 5

5. Meron bare, sternite 1 bare Sinopelta Xue et Zhang, 1996

- Meron with hairs, sternite 1 with hairs Lasiopelta Malloch, 1928

6. Eye kidney shape in profile Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

- Eye ovoid shape in profile Myospila Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Genus Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

  • Type species: Musca maculata Scopoli, 1845: 305.

  • Generic diagnosis: Posterior margin of eye inflexed; meron in the lower of posterior spiracle setosus, the inner of lower calypter with lobe; distal of vein M1+2 curving, dorsal and ventral surfaces of radial node all with setulae.

  • Key to species of Graphomya from China (Males)

    1. Species yellow in color; eye narrow, palpus yellow; legs yellow; sternite 1+2 yellow, both sides of sternite 3 in the middle without patch except median stripe Gr. paucimaculata Öuchi, 1938

    - Species brownish black or taupe in color; eye broad, palpus dark brown to brown; legs dark brown to brown; sternite 1+2 dark, both sides of sternite 3 in the middle with patches 2

    2. Ori with fine hairs; the light stripe of scutum subequal with the black paramedian stripe in width; legs all black except tibiae; sternite 1+2 mostly brown Gr. rufitibia Stein, 1918

    - Ori with dense hairs; the white stripe of scutum shorter than the black paramedian stripe in width; legs all black; sternite 1+2 mostly dark black 3

    1. Body covered with white pruinosity; distal of vein M1+2 curving slightly; the pruinosity and stripe of the abdomen distinctly, both sides of sternite 3 in the middle with big and brown triangular patches Gr. maculata (Scopoli, 1763)

    - Body covered with yellow pruinosity; distal of vein M1+2 curving intumescently; the pruinosity of abdomen lightly, the stripes of sternite lightly except the median stripe, both sides of sternite 3 in the middle with small and brown traversed patches Gr. maculata tienmushanensis Öuchi, 1939

    Genus Gymnodia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863

  • Type species: Gymnodia pratensis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863: 635.

  • Generic diagnosis: Basisternum of prosternum always bare; basal part of vein R4+5, dorsal and ventral surfaces of radial node completely bare; sternite 1 broad, the margin of sternite 1 always with setae.

  • Key to species of Gymnodia from China (Males)

    1. End of vein M1+2 straight 2

    - End of vein M1+2 curving forward 3

    2. Legs all black; prst-acr 2; triangular stripes of tergites 3 and tergites 4 extending to two flanks Gy. humilis (Zetterstedt, 1842–1860)

    - Basal part of tibia yellow; prst-acr 4; triangular stripes of tergites 3 and tergites 4 not extending to two flanks Gy. genurufoides Xue et Wang, 1992

    3. Dc 2+3 Gy. polystigma (Meigen, 1826)

    - Dc 2+4 4

    4. Fore tibia with pv 2 5

    - Fore tibia with pv 1 8

    5. Prst-acr 4–5, the biggest space broader than the space from prst-acr to post-dc rows 6

    - Prst-acr 2–4, the space narrower than or subequal with the space from prst-acr to post-dc rows 7

    6. Eyes with dense ciliae; genal dilation very broad extending to vibrissa angle and facial ridge; vein M1+2 curving forward slightly Gy. lasiopa (Emden, 1965)

    - Eyes bare; genal dilation separates from vibrissa angle and facial ridge; vein M1+2 curving forward distinctly Gy. yunnanensis Xue et Chen, 1992

    7. Hind femur with fringe rows; tergites 5 with a pair of narrow L-shaped stripes Gy. sichuanensis Xue et Feng, 1992

    - Hind femur without pv; tergites 5 without stripe Gy. latifronta Xue et Wang, 1992

    8. Legs brown partially Gy. tonitrui (Wiedemann, 1824)

    - Legs all black 9

    9. Tergites 4 only with a pair of big triangular stripes or a pair of small stripes in the middle 10

    - Tergites 4 with two pairs of stripes Gy. distincta (Stein, 1909)

    10. Parafacial without black pruinosity, abdomen transparent, tergites 4 with a pair of big triangular stripes Gy. ascendens (Stein, 1915)

    - Parafacial with gray pruinosity, abdomen dark, tergites 4 with a pair of small stripes Gy. nigrogrisea Karl, 1939

    Genus Hebecnema Schnabl, 1887

  • Type species: Anthomyia umbratica Meigen, 1826: 88.

  • Generic diagnosis: Male frons flat, antennal arista plumose; post-dc 4, pra absent or trichoid, notopleuron bare; vein M1+2 straight; hind tibia without pd; abdomen without pair patches.

  • Key to species of Hebecnema from China (Males)

    1. Eyes bare 2

    - Eyes with hairs 4

    2. Katepisternal setae 2+2; sternite 1 with hairs; cercal plate straight in profile H. xishuicum Feng, 2009

    - Katepisternal setae 1+2; sternite 1 bare; cercal plate arc-shaped in profile 3

    3. Abdomen yellow, tegula black, calypters Brown H. arcuatiabdomina Feng et Fan, 2001

    - Abdomen black, tegula brown, calypters light yellow H. vespertina (Fallén, 1823)

    4. Tibiae yellow to dark yellow 5

    - Tibiae entirely black 6

    5. Eyes bare; calypters brown; cercal plate thin strip-shaped in profile H. fumosa (Meigen, 1826)

    - Eyes with dense and long hairs; calypters white; cercal plate long cone-shaped in profile H. dasyopos Feng, 2009

    6. Calypters white H. alba Xue, 1983

    - Calypters light brown to brown 7

    7. Frons with a pair of ors H. manasicus Feng, 2009

    - Frons without ors 8

    8. Eyes with sparse ciliae; ial 0+3 H. umbratica (Meigen, 1826)

    - Eyes with dense ciliae; ial 0+2 9

    9. Arista short plumose, sternite 1 with Hairs H. coronata Feng et Wang, 2010

    - Arista long plumose, sternite 1 bare H. invisifacies Feng, 2009

    Genus Lasiopelta Malloch, 1928

  • Type species: Lasiopelta orientalis Malloch, 1928: 309.

  • Generic diagnosis: Pra long and subequal with posterior notopleural seta at least, reaching to the transverse suture almost, the distance between pra and transverse suture shorter than 1/4 of the distance between pra and supra-alar seta; sternite 1 with hairs.

  • Key to species of Lasiopelta from China (Males)

    1. Basisternum of prosternum with hairs L. longicornis (Stein, 1915)

    - Basisternum of prosternum bare 2

    2. Wing dark brownish, hind tibia with 1 ad L. maculipennis Wei, 1992

    - Wing hyaline, hind tibia with 2 ad 3

    3. Ori 5, hind tibia with 4 av L. rufescenta Wei et Jiang, 2010

    - Ori 2, hind tibia with 1 av L. flava Wei et Cao, 2010

    Genus Mydaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

  • Type species: Mydaea scutellaris Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 480.

  • Generic diagnosis: Basisternum of prosternum bare; vein M1+2 always straight.

  • Key to species to Mydaea from China (Males)

    1. Post-dc 3 2

    - Post-dc 4 7

    2. Femora black 3

    - Femora yellow 4

    3. Hind femur with complete and developed pv rows 5

    - Hind femur without pv Myd. shuensis Feng, 2003

    4. Parafacial about 3/5 of postpedicel in width, antennal arista as long as antennal postpedicel; pra absent; basicosta black; fore tibia without medial pv, hind femur with complete pv rows Myd. bideserta Xue et Wang, 1992

    - Parafacial about 1/3 of postpedicel in width, antennal arista about 1/3 of antennal postpedicel in length; pra longer than posterior notopleural seta; basicosta yellow; fore tibia with 1 medial pv, hind femur without pv Myd. jubiventera Feng et Deng, 2001

    5. Frons about 2.0 times as wide as antennal postpedicel, frontal vitta about 2.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate Myd. laxidetrita Xue et Wang, 1992

    - Frons subequal with antennal postpedicel in width, frontal vitta disappeared in the middle part 6

    6. Eyes with dense hair, frons with complete ori, parafacial about 2.0 times as wide as antennal postpedicel Myd. gansuensis (Ma et Wu, 1992)

    - Eyes bare, frons with partial ori, parafacial about 1/2 of antennal postpedicel in width. Myd. franzosternita Xue et Tian, n. sp.

    7. Scutellum yellow or basal part yellow; legs mostly yellow 8

    - Scutellum dark black; legs slightly yellow 11

    8. Hind femur with complete pv rows 9

    - Hind femur without distinct pv Myd. tinctoscutaris Xue, 1992

    9. Anterior spiracle yellow, scutellum and fore femur entirely yellow, prst-acr 2 Myd. gracilior Xue, 1992

    - Anterior spiracle fuscous, neither scutellum nor fore femur yellow, prst-acr 1 10

    10. Scutellum yellow mostly; trochanter and coxa of fore leg, basal half of fore femur and all tarsi fuscous; cerci plate broad in profile Myd. setifemur Ringdahl, 1924

    - Basal part of subscutellum fuscous; all legs yellow; cerci plate narrow in profile Myd. kangdinga Xue et Feng, 1992

    11. Hind femur yellow at least 12

    - All femora fuscous 22

    12. Hind femur without pv 13

    - Hind femur with uncompletely and trichoid pv row 14

    13. Frons subequal with anterior ocellus in width; basicosta yellow; hind tibia with 1 av and 1 ad; abdomen with shifting patches Myd. discocerca Feng, 2000

    - Frons about 2.0 times as wide as anterior ocellus; basicosta fuscous; hind tibia with 2(3) av and 2 ad; abdomen without shifting Patch 15

    14. Pra about 1/2 of posterior notopleural seta in length; wing brown, basal half of hind femur with pv obviously 19

    - Pra longer than posterior notopleural seta; wing yellow, hind femur with sparse and short pv 20

    15. Antennal arista ciliated, the longest hair subequal with antennal postpedicel in width 16

    - Antennal arista short ciliated, the longest hair longer than antennal postpedicel in width 17

    16. Parafacial about 1/2 of postpedicel in width, basicosta brown, pra about 2/3 of posterior notopleural seta in length, hind tibia with 2 av Myd. brevis Wei, 1994

    - Parafacial subequal with postpedicel in width, basicosta dark brown, pra about 1.3 times as long as posterior notopleural seta, hind tibia with 3 av Myd. fuchaoi Xue et Tian, 2012

    17. Frons with 7–8 pairs of ori Myd. affinis Meade, 1891

    - Frons with 12–14 pairs of ori 18

    18. Basisternum of prosternum yellow, pra subequal with posterior notopleural seta in length, metapleura with hairs; mid tibia with 2–4 p, hind tibia with 2–3 av Myd. flavifemora Feng, 2000

    - Basisternum of prosternum black, pra longer than posterior notopleural seta in length, metapleura bare; mid tibia with 2 p, hind tibia with 2 av Myd. nigribasicosta Xue, 1996

    19. Frons about 2.0–2.5 times as wide as anterior ocellus; hind tibia with 2 av Myd. brunneipennis Wei, 1994

    - Frons subequal with anterior ocellus in length; hind tibia with 1 av Myd. nigra Wei, 1994

    20. Frons with 10 pairs of ori; pra about 1.5–2.0 times as long as posterior notopleural seta; hind tibia with 3 av Myd. urbana (Meigen, 1826)

    - Frons less than 6 pairs of ori; pra longer than posterior notopleural seta; hind tibia with 2 av 21

    21. Frons with 6 pairs of ori; tibia dark black, mid tibia with 3–4 p Myd. glaucina Wei, 1994

    - Frons with 4–5 pairs of ori; tibia yellow, mid tibia with 2 p Myd. minutiglaucina Xue et Tian, 2012

    22. Legs all black 23

    - Legs not all black 24

    23. Antennal arista ciliated, the longest hair subequal with antennal postpedicel in width; pra about 3/4 of posterior notopleural seta; fore tibia with 1 medial p, hind femur with pv; abdomen with shifting patpatches Myd. sinensis Ma, Wu et Cui, 1986

    - Antennal arista plumose, the longest hair about 1.5 times as wide as postpedicel; pra about 1.3 times as long as posterior notopleural seta; fore tibia without medial p, hind femur without pv; abdomen without shifting patch Myd. ancilloides Xue, 1992

    24. Hind femur with 1 pv at least 25

    - Hind femur without pv 27

    25. Only basal half of hind femur with pv, tibia Fuscous Myd. nubila Stein, 1916

    - Hind femur with complete pv row, tibia Yellow 26

    26. Frons distinct narrower than antennal postpedicel; hind tibia with 1 av and 2 ad M. minor Ma et Wu, 1986

    - Frons about 2.2 times as wide as antennal postpedicel; hind tibia with 2 av and 3 ad Myd. latielecta Xue, 1992

    27. Frons wider than the distance between outer margins of posterior ocellus, the longest aristal hair about 2.0 times as wide as antennal postpedicel; tibia yellow, hind tibia with 1 av Myd. emeishanna Feng et Deng, 2001

    - Frons narrower than the distance between outer margins of posterior ocellus, the longest aristal hair subequal with antennal postpedicel in width; tibia dark brown, hind tibia with 2(3) av 28

    28. Palpus black, mid femur with strong a Myd. jiuzhaigouensis Feng et Deng, 2001

    - Palpus brown, mid femur without a 29

    29. Abdomen with white pruinosity, the cerci about 1.3 times as long as broad Myd. subelecta Feng, 2000

    - Abdomen with caesious pruinosity, the length of the cerci subequal with the width Myd. scolocerca Feng, 2000

    Mydaea franzosternita Xue & Tian, n. sp. (Figure 1A–D)

  • Holotype Male. Body length 7.5 mm.

  • Head. Eyes bare; frons subequal with antennal postpedicel in width, fronto-orbital plate joint on middle part, basal half of frons with 5 pairs of ori; fronto-orbital plate, parafacial and gena covered with silvery white pruinosity, parafacial about 1/2 of postpedicel in width; antennae dark brown, postpedicel about 2.0 times as long as wide, arista short plumose, the longest hair subequal with antennal postpedicel in width; epistoma not projecting in profile, vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile, genal height about 1/9 of eye height, genal and postgenal hairs all black, the upper lateral area of the occiput with hairs; proboscis short, prementum about 2.0 times as long as wide, palpi dark brown, longer than haustellum.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, with light grey pruinosity, presutural area of scutum with 1 black vitta, postsutural area of scutum without distinct vitta; acr 8, dc 2+3, ial 0+2; pra about 3/5 of posterior notopleural seta in length, lateral and ventral surfaces of scutellum, notopleuron, prosternum, meron and katepimeron all bare, katepisternal setae 1+2.

  • Wings. Transparent, veins brownish, basicosta blacknish brown, costal spine shorter than crossvein r-m, radial node with setulae, veins R4+5 and M1+2 all straight, vein M S-shaped; halteres yellow, calypteres yellowish.

  • Legs. Tibiae yellow, otherwise black; fore tibia without medial p; mid femur with row of 1 pv, becoming short apically, and with 2 apical a and 3 pd, mid tibia with 2 p; hind femur with complete av and pv rows, basal half fine trichoid, and with fine v, hind tibia with 3 av, 2 ad, and 4(5) short p, without apical pv; tarsi longer than tibiae, claws and pulvilli small and short.

  • Abdomen. Black, cone-shape in dorsal view, covered with dense dark yellow pruinosity, without shifting patch; sternite 1 bare, lateral lobes of sternite 5 yellow, with strong 5–6 setae, basal part with long fringe.

  • Abdomen. Black, cone-shape in dorsal view, covered with dense dark yellow pruinosity, without shifting patch; sternite 1 bare, lateral lobes of sternite 5 yellow, with strong 5–6 setae, basal part with long fringe.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Type material. Holotype: 1 male, Mt. Changbaishan, Jilin Province, 2691 m, 15. v. 2004, collected by Chun-Tian Zhang. Holotype is deposited in IESNU. Paratypes: 1male, same data as holotype.

  • Remarks. This species resembles Mydaea laxidetrita Xue & Wang, 1992, but differs from it by having a frons subequal in width with antennal postpedicel; pra about 3/5 of posterior notopleural seta; lateral lobes of sternite 5 yellow, basal part with long fringe.

  • Etymology. The species name is derived from the Greek words franza meaning fringe and sternita meaning sternite, referring to the male basal part of the lobes of sternite 5 with dense and long fringes.

  • Genus Myospila Rondani, 1856

  • Type species: Musca meditabunda Fabricus, 1781: 444. Phasiophana Brauer et Bergenstamm, 1891: 390; Trichomorellia Stein, 1918: 204; Xenosia Malloch, 1921: 421; Xenosina Malloch, 1925: 509; Eumyiospila Malloch, 1926: 499; Helinella Malloch, 1926: 498; Pahangia Malloch, 1928: 311; Eumydaea Karl, 1935: 41; Sinomuscina Seguy, 1937: 358; Oramydaea Snyder, 1949: 20; Parapictia Pont, 1968: 179.

  • Generic diagnosis: Vein Sc arc-shaped, dorsal and ventral surfaces of radial node with hairs (except Myo. lenticeps (Thomson, 1869) just ventral surface with hairs), distal of Vein M1+2 always curving forward, the opening distance of cell 2 R5 about 2.0 times as long as crossvein r-m at least; hind tibia without distinct pd, hind coxa without hair on posterior surface.

  • Key to species to Myospila from China

    1. Basisternum of prosternum bare 2

    - Basisternum of prosternum with hairs 14

    2. Thorax and abdomen all yellow, apical cerci not divided in posterior view Myo. xanthisma Shinonaga et Huang, 2007

    - Thorax dark black, abdomen with yellow part at most or black, apical cerci divided in posterior view 3

    3. Abdomen with yellow part at most 4

    - Abdomen black 5

    4. Hind femur blackish brown except for yellowish brown basally, mid femur brownish black at basal 1/2 Myo. basilara Wei, 2012

    - Hind femur brownish black, mid femur brownish black at basal 2/3 Myo. paratrochanterata, Wei, 2012

    5. Postsutural ial short and small; basicosta yellow; tibia yellow; abdomen with yellow part 6

    - Postsutural ial 2, about 2.0 times as long as body hairs; basicosta dark brown; tibia black; abdomen without yellow part 8

    6. Hind tibia with 1 av and 2 ad Myo. flavipedis Shinonaga et Huang, 2007

    - Hind tibia with 1 av and 1 ad 7

    7. Dorsal surfaces of radial node with hairs; tarsi black, hind femur without pv on basal half Myo. argentata (Walker, 1856)

    - Dorsal surface of radial node bare; tarsi yellow, hind femur with fine pv on basal half Myo. boseica Feng, 2005

    8. Frons with 2 pair of ors; distal of vein M1+2 slightly curving forward 9

    - Frons with 1 pair of ors; distal of vein M1+2 distinct curving forward 11

    9. Legs black to dark black mostly Myo. armata Snyder, 1940 (♀, according to Holotype)

    - Fore femur, fore coxa and tarsi black, other parts yellow 10

    10. Eyes bare; basicosta balck; tergites with obvious narrow and grayish pruinosity stripes Myo. breviscutellata Xue et Kuang, 1992

    - Eyes with dense ciliae; basicosta yellow; tergites 3–5 with wide and black median stripes Myo. vernata Feng, 2005

    11. Frons with 1 pair of ors at least Myo. mingshanana Feng, 2000

    - Frons without ors 2

    12. Eyes almost bare Myo. meditabunda (Fabricius, 1781)

    - Eyes with long ciliae 13

    13. Eye with dense ciliae, parafacial about 1/3 of antennal postpedicel in width; fore tibia with pv, mid tibia with 1(2) pv, hind tibia with 3(4) av; surstyli straight in profile Myo. angustifrons Malloch, 1922

    - Eye with sparse ciliae, parafacial subequal with antennal postpedicel in width; fore tibia without pv, mid tibia without pv, hind tibia with 2 av; surstyli arc-shaped in profile Myo. kangdingica Qian, 2005

    14. Lower calypter broad, the distal part inflexed 15

    - Lower calypter narrow, the distal not inflexed 17

    15. Meron with hairs, abdomen with patch vittae Myo. bina (Wiedemann, 1830)

    - Meron bare, abdomen without patch vittae 16

    16. Mid femur dark brown, tergite 3 to 4 without spot, cerci broad and short Myo. binoides Feng, 2005

    - Mid femur yellow, tergite 3 to 4 with spot, cerci narrow and long Myo. longa Wei, 2011

    17. Ial 0+2, ventral surface of scutellum bare 18

    - Ial 0+1, lateral of scutellum with fine hairs on ventral surface 43

    18. Basicosta black brown or black; coxae black to dark brown 19

    - Basicosta yellow; coxae yellowish brown 30

    19. Basicosta black 20

    - Basicosta dark brown 22

    20. Trochanter brownish black 21

    - Trochanter yellow Myo. cetera Wei, 2012

    21. Cercus narrower and surstylus straight viewed from laterally and posteriorly Myo. subflavitibia Wei, 2012

    - Cercus wider and surstylus curved viewed from laterally and posteriorly Myo. piliungulisoides Wei, 2012

    22. Eyes with dense and long ciliae 23

    - Eyes bare (few with fine hairs) 27

    23. Anterior spiracle red; hind tibia with 4(3) ad on apical half; tergite 3 with a pair of brown patches; tergite 5 without vitta Myo. apicaliciliola Xue et Tian n. sp.

    - Anterior spiracle yellowish; hind tibia with 2 ad on apical half; tergite 5 with vittae 24

    24. Tergite 3 with patch 25

    - Tergite 3 without patch 26

    25. Parafacial reddish brown, frons narrow, about 1.3 times as wide as anterior ocellarwidth; wings grey, hyaline Myo. brunneusa Wei, 2012

    - Parafacial black brown, frons wider, about as wide as ocellar triangle-width; wings brownish Myo.vittata Wei, 2012

    26. Mid and hind femora entirely brownish yellow Myo. lasiophthalma (Emden, 1965)

    - Mid and hind femora brownish black Myo.paralasiophthalma Wei, 2012

    27. Scutellum often brown; distal part of mid femur and hind femur yellow Myo. trochanterata (Emden, 1965)

    - Scutellum and femora all black 28

    28. Epistoma at the same vertical line with frontal angle in profile, palpus brown Myo. subtenax Xue, 1998

    - Epistoma placed behind frontal angle in profile, palpus black 29

    29. The front of metapleura with hairs, a pair vittae of scutum not reaching scutoscutellar suture, femur brown Myo. tenax (Stein, 1918)

    - The front of metapleura bare, a pair vittae of scutum reaching scutoscutellar suture, femur dark black Myo. nigrifemura Feng, 2005

    30. Vein R1 without seta 31

    - At least dorsal surface of vein R1 with rows of setae 34

    31. Frons ori less than 14; postpronotal lobe mostly brown 32

    - Frons with 14–16 pairs of ori; postpronotal lobe black 33

    32. Ori 6, notopleuron bare Myo. laevis (Stein, 1900)

    - Ori 12, notopleuron with hairs Myo. brunnea Feng, 2005

    33. Genal and postgenal hairs all black; the inner stripe of scutum black Myo. maoershanensis Xue et Tian n. sp.

    - Genal and postgenal hairs all yellow; the inner stripe of scutum black before transverse suture, other parts yellownish brown Myo. subbruma Feng, 2003

    34. Postpronotal lobe, scutellum and proepisternum all yellow; apical half of scutellum with some black setae on lateral surface; dorsal and ventral surfaces of vein R4+5 with fine rows of setae Myo. setipennis (Malloch, 1930)

    - Postpronotal lobe, scutellum and proepisternum all balck; apical half of scutellum without setae on lateral surface; dorsal and ventral surfaces of vein R4+5 with fine rows of setae 35

    35. Postpedicel brown yellow 36

    - Postpedicel black 38

    36. Abdomen without patches 37

    - Abdomen with patches Myo. femorata (Malloch, 1935)

    37. Postgena with dark setulae Myo. flavilauda Wei, 1991

    - Postgena with yellow setulae Myo. ruficornica Wei, 2012

    38. All coxae yellow Myo. frigoroida Qian, 2005

    - All coxae blacknish brown 39

    39. Katepisternal setae 2+2; only basal part of vein R1 with 5 setae on dorsal surface Myo. fuscicoxoides Xue et Lin, 1998

    - Katepisternal setae 1+2; all dorsal surface of vein R1 with long setae 40

    40. Distal of cerci in posterior view, surstyli longer than cerci in profile 41

    - Distal of cerci flat, surstyli subequal with cerci in length in profile 42

    41. Vein R1 bare on dorsal surface; Vein R4+5 with setulae on dorsal and ventral surfaces Myo. pudica (Stein, 1915)

    - Vein R1 sparsely setulose on dorsal surface; Vein R4+5 bare Myo. flavilobulusa Wei, 2012

    42. Postgena with black setulae; tarsus yellow Myo. fuscicoxa (Li, 1980)

    - Postgena with yellow setulae; tarsus black Myo. acrula Wei, 2012

    43. Ventral and lateral surfaces of scutellum bare 44

    - Ventral and lateral surfaces of scutellum with some fine hairs 61

    44. Scutellum brownish yellow except basal part 45

    - Scutellum all blacknish brown 52

    45. Only fore femur black; posterior margin of sternite 5 black Myo. ateripraefemura Feng, 2005

    - All femora black; posterior margin of sternite 5 brown 46

    46. Frons narrower than anterior ocellus in width, postpedicel always yellow; scutellum brownish yellow mostly Myo. hainanensis Xue, 1998

    - Frons subequal with anterior ocellus in width at least, postpedicel black to dark brown; scutellum yellow apically 47

    47. Ori not reach to front ocellus, postpronotal lobe yellow, the lateral of scutellum with hair 48

    - Ori reach to front ocellus, postpronotal lobe black, the lateral of scutellum without hair 50

    48. Fore femur yellow, cerci shorter than surstyli in length Myo. flavihumera Feng, 2001

    - The 2/3 base of fore femur black, cerci subequal with surstyli in length 49

    49. Thorax brown Myo. xuthosa Wei, 2011

    - Thorax black Myo. tianmushanica Feng, 2005

    50. Anterior of metanepisternum with light and short hairs; tergite 5 brownish yellow mostly Myo. rufomarginata (Malloch, 1925)

    - Anterior of metanepisternum without hair; tergite 5 black mostly 51

    51. The anterior margin of gena with 1 row of upcurving setulae; katepisternal setae 1+2; dorsal and ventral surfaces of vein R4+5 with hairs; lateral of tergites 4 with a pair of light brown patches respectively Myo. changzhenga Feng, 2000

    - The anterior margin of gena with 3 rows of upcurving setulae; katepisternal setae 2+2; basal of vein R4+5 bare on ventral surface; tergite 4 without patch Myo. emeishanensis Feng, 2005

    52. Palpus dark brown or light black; femora, tibiae and trochanters brown yellow 53

    - Palpus black; legs black mostly, except apical part of femora 55

    53. Palpus black Myo. sparsiseta (Stein, 1915)

    - Palpus dark brown 54

    54. Basicosta yellow Myo. lautoides Feng, 2005

    - Basicosta black Myo. sublauta Wei, 2011

    55. Basicosta black; tarsi black 56

    - Basicosta yellow to brownish yellow; tarsi yellow 57

    56. Postpedicel about 4.0 times as long as wide; hind femur without pv Myo. mimelongata Feng, 2007

    - Postpedicel about 2.0 times as long as wide; hind femur with 1 pv at least Myo. elongate (Emden, 1965)

    57. Basal half of vein R1 with 1 row of setae on dorsal surface 58

    - Vein R1 bare.. 59

    58. Scutellum blacknish brown; halteres yellow; coxae and femora dark black Myo. guangdonga Xue, 1998

    - Basal and ventral surface of scutellum yellow; halteres light red brown; coxae and femora dark yellow Myo. frigora Qian et Feng, 2005

    59. Eyes with sporadic hairs, frons with 12–13 pairs of ori Myo. bruma Feng, 2003

    - Eyes bare, frons with 5–6 pairs of ori 60

    60. Pedicel yellow; scutellum with distinct median stripes; only tarsi and tibiae black Myo. flavipennis (Malloch, 1928)

    - Pedicel black; scutellum without median stripe; legs mostly black except tibiae brownish yellow and tarsi brown Myo. subflavipennis Xue et Tian n. sp.

    61. Frons about 1/5 head in width at least, frons with 2 pairs of ors Myo. latifrons Wei, 1991

    - Frons subequal with the distance between outer margins of posterior ocelli at most, frons with 1 pairs of ors 62

    62. Frontage surface of ommatidium enlarged; abdomen mostly light yellow 63

    - Frontage surface of ommatidium not enlarged; abdomen dark brown 64

    63. Notopleuron bare, katepisternal seta 1+2 Myo. ponti Xue, 1996

    - Notopleuron with hairs, katepisternal seta 2+2 Myo. fengi Wei, 2011

    64. Tarsi dark brown, at least fore coxa black Myo. lauta (Stein, 1918)

    - Tarsi yellow, coxae slight black 65

    65. Ial 1+2 Myo. flavibasis (Malloch, 1925)

    - Ial 1+1 66

    66. Abdomen black Myo. flavilauta Xue et Li, 1998

    - The base of abdomen yellow 67

    67. Frons narrow, frontal vitta disappear, antenna dark brown; posterior spiracle and femur yellow Myo. flavibasisoides Wei, 2011

    - Frons broad, frontal vitta existence, antenna black; posterior spiracle and femur dark brown Myo. subflavibasis Wei, 2011

    Myospila apicaliciliola Xue & Tian, n. sp.
    (Figure 2A–D)

  • Holotype Male. Body length 7.5–8.0 mm.

  • Head. Eyes with short and dense ciliae; frons wider than the distance between outer margins of posterior ocelli, frontal vitta black, about 2.0 times as wide as fronto-orbital plate, frons with 11–13 pairs of ori, becoming shorter apically; both sides of anterior ocellus with a pair of retroverted ors, about 2.0 times as long as the upper one; fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with dark gray pruinosity, parafacial about 1/2 of postpedicel in width; antenna black, postpedicel about 4.0 times as long as wide, arista long plumose, the longest hair about 2.5 times as wide as aristal basal diameter; epistoma not projecting in profile, anterior margin of gena with 2 rows of upcurving subvibrissal setulae; vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile; gena slightly shining, covered with sparse brown pruinosity, genal height about 1/6 of eye height; genal and postgenal hairs entire black, the upper lateral area of the occiput with hairs; proboscis short, prementum shining, covered with sparse grey pruinosity, about 1.5 times as long as wide; palpus black, longer than the length of prementum; labella large, subequal with prementum in length.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, scutum covered with grayish pruinosity, postsutural area of scutum covered with grey pruinosity, between dc rows with a black narrow stripe; 6 rows of trichoid prst-acr, post-acr 1, dc 2+4, ial 0+2, pra short, about 1/3 posterior no topleural seta in length; notopleuron bare; scutellum brownish yellow apically, lateral and ventral surfaces bare; basisternum of prosternum with hairs, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare; anterior spiracle yellow, posterior spiracle blackish brown; upper proepimeral setae 2, anterior anepisernal setae 3; katepisternal setae 2+2.

  • Wings. Transparent; basicosta dark brown, costal spine short and small, ventral surface of vein C with hairs, vein Sc curving, arcshaped, subcosta sclerite brown; the whole length of vein R1 bare, basal of vein R4+5, dorsal and ventral surfaces of radial node with setulae, distal part of M1+2 curving forward; upper calypter brownish, lower calypter yellow and tongue-shaped, about 1.5 times as long as the upper one; halteres brownish yellow.

  • Legs. Apical of femora yellow, other parts blackish brown; fore tibia without median p; mid femur with 1 row of a on basal half, pv strong on basal half, 3(4) pd, short and long 1 av, trichoid apically, without preapical a, mid tibia with 3 p; hind femur with 1 complete and long av row, without pv, hind tibia with 2(1) av and 4(3) ad on distal half, without apical pv; hind tarsi slightly shorter than its tibia, claws and pulvilli normal, slightly shorter than tarsomere 5.

  • Abdomen. Black, oviform, covered with grayish to brownish grey pruinosity, without glittery patch, body hairs short and dense, tergite 3 with a pair of brown elliptic patches, tergite 4 with a pair of blackish brown triangular patches, tergite 5 with a narrow faint pruinosity vitta, tergites 4 and 5 with distinct posterior marginal and discal setae, with distinct piliferous patches; sternite 1 bare, apical part of sternites 2 and 4 with strong setae.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Type material. Holotype: 1 male, Mt. Mao'er shan, Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region, 800 m, 16. v. 2004, collected by Mingfu Wang. Holotype is deposited in IESNU. Paratypes: 2 males, same data as holotype.

  • Remarks. This species resembles Myospila lasiophthalma (Emden, 1965), but differs from it by in tergite 5 dark brown mostly, without distinct patch; inner margin of male cerci very straight and with many small hairs apically.

  • Etymology. The species name is derived from the Latin words cilium meaning small ciliae, referring to the male apical part of the cerci, which has many small ciliae.

  • Myospila maoershanensis Xue & Tian, n. sp. (Figure 3A–D)

  • Holotype Male. Body length 7.2–7.5 mm.

  • Head. Eyes bare; frons about 2.0 times as wide as anterior ocellus; frontal vitta black, the narrowest part wirelike, frons with 13–15 pairs of ori, becoming shorter toward forward, the upper one just subequal with anterior ocellus in width, front also with upper orbital seta 1, about 3.5 times as wide as anterior ocellus, fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with silvery white pruinosity; parafacial about 2/5 of postpedicel in width; antennae black, postpedicel about 3.5 times as long as wide, arista long plumose, the longest hair about 2.5 times as wide as aristal basal diameter; epistoma not projecting, with a row of upcurving subvibrissal setulae; vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile; gena with dark brown pruinosity, slightly shining, genal height about 1/9 of eye height; beard and postgena setae all black, dorsal area of occiput with hairs; proboscis short, prementum shining, covered with few grey pruinosity, about 1.6 times as long as wide; palpus blackish brown, longer than prementum in length.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, anterior of scutum covered with silvery white pruinosity, posterior of scutum covered with grey pruinosity, inner part of dc row with a black narrow stripe, and the outside one too wide; acr 0+1, dc 2+4, ia 0+2, pra about 2/5 of posterior notopleural seta in length; notopleuron bare; apical half of scutellum brownish yellow, lateral and ventral surfaces bare; basisternum of prosternum with hairs, anepimeron, meron and katepimeron all bare; anterior spiracle yellow, posterior spiracle dark brown; upper proepimeral setae 2, anterior anepisernal setae 1; katepisternal setae 1+2.

  • Wings. Transparent; tegula dark brown, basicosta brownish yellow, costal spine short and small, ventral surface of vein C with hairs, vein Sc curving as arc-shaped, subcosta sclerite brownish yellow; vein R1 bare, base of vein R4+5, dorsal and ventral surfaces of radial node all with setulae, distal of vein M1+2 curving forward; calypters brownish yellow, the lower calypter tongue-shaped, about 1.8 times as long as the upper calypter; halteres yellow.

  • Legs. Femora, tibiae and trochanters yellow, coxae brownish yellow, tarsi blackish brown; fore tibia without median p; mid femur with a short av row 2/5 of distal, 6(7) pv on distal half, preapical with 3 pd, mid tibia with 3(2) p, without other seta; hind femur with a complete and long av row, without pv; hind tibia with 2 av (including a small av), 1 median ad, without pd and apical pv; all tarsi longer than tibiae, claws and pulvilli normal, slightly longer than tarsomere 5.

  • Abdomen. Black, round-shaped, every tergite covered with a grey median pruinosity vitta, both sides of the vitta covered with sparse brownish grey pruinosity, and extended to katepisternum, without glitter patch, body hairs short and dense; posterior of tergite 3 and 4 smoke-color, but without lateral patch; posterior marginal setae on tergite 4 and 5 strong, discal setae on tergite 5 distinct; sternite 1 bare, posterior margin of sternite 2(4) with a pair of strong setae respectively.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Type material. Holotype: 1 male, Mt. Mao'er shan, Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region, 800 m, 16. v. 2004, collected by Dong Zhang. Holotype is deposited in IESNU. Paratypes: 1 male, same data as holotype.

  • Remarks. This species resembles Myospila subbruma Feng 2003, but differs from it in both beard and postgena setae yellow, inner vitta on presutural area of scutum yellow, and the one on postsutural area of scutum black; frons with 13–15 pairs of ori, becoming shorter toward the front, the upper one just subequal with anterior ocellus width, front it also with a upper orbital seta, about 3.5 times as wide as anterior ocellus; prementum shining, covered with few grey pruinosity, about 1.6 times as long as wide.

  • Etymology. The species is named after the locality of the holotype, referring to the species found in China: Guangxi Zhuangzu Au-Autonomous Region: Mt. Mao'er shan.

  • Myospila subflavipennis Xue et Tian, n. sp. (Figure 4A–D)

  • Holotype Male. Body length 5.8–6.3 mm.

  • Head. Eyes bare; frons about subequal with the distance between outer margins of posterior ocelli; frontal vitta black, obliterated in the middle; frons with 5–6 pairs of ori, distributing over 3/5 lower of frons; fronto-orbital plate and parafacial covered with silvery white pruinosity; parafacial about 1/3 of postpedicel in width; antennae black, postpedicel about 3.5 times as long as wide, arista long plumose, and the longest hair about 2.5 times as wide as its basal diameter; epistoma not projecting in profile, with a row of upcurving subvibrissal setulae; vibrissal angle situated behind frontal angle in profile; gena covered with grey pruinosity, slightly shining, genal height about 1/6 of eye height; beard and postgena setae all black, dorsal area of occiput with hairs; proboscis short, prementum shining and covered with few grey pruinosity, about 2.0 times as long as wide; palpus blackish brown, longer than prementum in length, labella large, subequal with prementum in length.

  • Thorax. Black in ground color, anterior of scutum covered with silvery white pruinosity, posterior of scutum covered with grey to brownish grey pruinosity, inner part of dc row with a black narrow stripe, and the outside one too wide; acr 0+1, dc 2+4, ia 0+1, pra trichoid, about 1/3 of posterior notopleural seta in length; notopleuron bare; scutellum the same color as thorax, lateral and ventral surfaces of scutellum bare; basisternum of prosternum with hairs, anepimeron, meron, and katepimeron all bare; spiracles dark brown; just with upper proepimeral setae long and large 1, anterior anepisernal seta 1; katepisternal setae 1+2.

  • Wings. Transparent; tegula and basicosta black, costal spine short and small, ventral surface of vein C with hairs, vein Sc curved as arc-shaped, and subcosta sclerite brownish yellow; vein R4+5 base, dorsal and ventral surfaces of radial node bare, distal of vein M1+2 curved forward; calypters brown, the lower calypter tongue-shaped, about 1.8 times as long as the upper calypter; halteres yellow.

  • Legs. Blackish brown except tiabiae brownish yellow, tarsi brown; fore tibia without median p; mid femur with a short av row 2/5 of distal, long 3(4) pv on distal half, preapical with 3 pd, mid tibia with 3 p, without other seta; hind femur with a complete of short av row, and just 4(5) large apically, without distinct pv; hind tibia with 2 av, median with 1 ad, without pd and apical pv; all tarsi longer than tibiae, claws and pulvilli small, about 1/2 of tarsomere 5 in length.

  • Abdomen. Black, egg-shaped, covered with dense grey pruinosity, without glittery patch, tergite 3 and 4 with a wide brown trapeziashaped patch respectively, in the middle of the patch with a brownish grey pruinosity vitta, divided the trapezia-shaped patch into two indistinct parts; posterior marginal setae and discal setae on tergite 4 and 5 thick and large, posterior margin of tergite 5 shining and brown; black median part narrow; sternite 1 bare, posterior margin of sternite 2(4) with a pair of strong setae respectively, sternite 5 lanky.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Type material. Holotype: 1 male, Mt. Jianfeng, Gougu Rain forest, Hainan Province, 500–1000 m, 19.v.2004, collected by Ming-fu Wang. Holotype is deposited in IESNU. Paratypes: 6 males, same data as holotype.

  • Remarks. This species resembles Myospila flavipennis (Malloch, 1928), but differs from it by the pedicel being black; scutellum with out a broad median vitta; legs entirely black except tibiae brownish yellow and tarsi brown.

  • Etymology. The species name is from the Latin words sub meaning resemble, referring to the male resemblance to the species Myospila flavipennis (Malloch, 1928).

  • Genus Sinopelta Xue et Zhang, 1996

  • Type species: Sinopelta latifrons Xue et Zhang, 1996: 202.

  • Generic diagnosis: Male frons broad; scutum without acr, katepisternal setae 2+2, meron bare; mid tibia with pv, hind tibia with 2 av; lateral lobe of sternite 5 with strong bunchy setae.

  • Key to species of Sinopelta from China (Males)

  • 1. With ors, epistoma projecting; prementum about 6.0 times as long as height; halteres black; fore tibia with 1 medial pv, mid tibia with 2 ad S. latifrons Xue et Zhang, 1996

  • - Without ors, epistoma not projecting, prementum about 2.5 times as long as height; halteres brown yellow; fore tibia without medial pv, mid tibia without ad S. maculiventra Xue et Zhang, 1996

  • Figure 1.

    Mydaea franzosternita Xue et Tian n.sp. Male: A. Sternite 5 in ventral view, scale bar = 0.2 mm; B. Abdomen in dorsal view, scale bar = 1 mm; C. Terminalia in profile, scale bar = 0.2 mm; D. Terminalia in posterior view, scale bar = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f01_01.jpg

    Figure 2.

    Myospila apicaliciliola Xue et Tian n.sp. Male: A. Sternite 5 in ventral view; B. Terminalia in profile; C. Terminalia in posterior view; D. Myospila maoershanensis Xue et Tian n.sp. Male: Genitalia in profile. All scale bar = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f02_01.jpg

    Figure 3.

    Myospila maoershanensis Xue et Tian n.sp. Male: A. Sternite 5 in ventral view, scale bar = 0.2 mm; B. Abdomen in dorsal view, scale bar = 1 mm; C. Terminalia in profile, scale bar = 0.2 mm; D. Terminalia in posterior view, scale bar = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f03_01.jpg

    Figure 4.

    Myospila subflavipennis Xue et Tian n.sp. Male: A. Sternite 5 in ventral view, scale bar = 0.2 mm; B. Abdomen in dorsal view, scale bar = 1 mm; C. Terminalia in profile, scale bar = 0.2 mm; D. Terminalia in posterior view, scale bar = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f04_01.jpg

    Acknowledgements

    We would like to acknowledge and extend our heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Adrian C. Pont (Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, U.K.) and Professor Ming-Fu Wang (Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University) for their helpful suggestions on manuscript. Thank you to Dong Zhang, Ming-Fu Wang, and Chun-Tian Zhang (Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal University), who gave us invaluable help with this study. This study was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 31172139).

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    This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.
    Wan-Qi Xue and Xu Tian "Keys to the Species of Mydaeinae (Diptera: Muscidae) from China, with the Description of Four New Species," Journal of Insect Science 14(22), 1-26, (1 February 2014). https://doi.org/10.1673/031.014.22
    Received: 24 March 2012; Accepted: 5 December 2013; Published: 1 February 2014
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