Open Access
Translator Disclaimer
1 February 2014 The Fern-Feeder Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China: A Generic Account, Descriptions of One New Genus, One New Species, One New Subspecies, and Keys
Xiao-Mei Su, Li-Yun Jiang, Ge-Xia Qiao
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Fern-feeder aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in China are represented by 13 species in 10 genera, including a new genus, Vietaphis gen. nov., a new species, Vietaphis aliquantus sp. nov., from Guizhou and Tibet on Plagiogyria japonicum, and a new subspecies, Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov., from Guizhou on Pentarhizidium intermedium. Two genera, Amphorophora Buckton and Idiopterus Davis, and four species or subspecies, Amphorophora ampullate bengalensis Hille Ris Lambers and Basu, Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi, and Myzus filicis Basu, are reported for the first time in China. Apterae and alatae of Myzus filicis are redescribed herein, and with host plant notes. The fern-feeder aphid genus Neomacromyzus Lee is considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus. Furthermore, Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee is transferred to the genus Idiopterus, as Idiopterus cyrtomicola (Lee), comb. nov., which is herein considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis. Keys to Chinese fern-feeder species are provided. Morphological figures and biometrical data of Vietaphis aliquantus sp. nov., Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov., and Myzus filicis are presented.

Introduction

Aphids feeding on ferns are few compared to ones on other host plants, such as gymnosperms, herbaceous monocotyledons, or various angiosperm families. Robinson (1966) reviewed 11 species of fern-feeding aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in North America. Subsequently, Miyazaki (1968) reported 10 fern-feeding aphid species distributed in Japan. Jensen and Holman (2000) provided an accurate list of fern-feeding aphids, including 44 species belonging to 14 genera in the world. Thereafter, studies on fern aphids have been limited and only confined to descriptions of a few new species or new genera (Lee 2006; Su and Qiao 2010).

Among aphid samples collected from South and Southwest China, as part of an ongoing survey of Aphididae in Guizhou and Tibet, fern-feeding aphid samples were obtained. Based on these samples, the fern-feeding aphids from China are herein reviewed. Currently, the fern-feeding aphid fauna of China is represented by 13 species or subspecies belonging to 10 genera.

The original description of the apterae of Myzus filicis Basu was very simple (Basu 1969). Here, based on material collected in China, the apterous viviparous female and the hitherto unknown alatae of M. filicis are described in detail. While checking specimens and the literature, we found that Neomacromyzus Lee is a junior synonym of the genus Idiopterus Davis. As a result, Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee is transferred to Idiopterus, as Idiopterus cyrtomicola (Lee), comb. nov., which is herein considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis.

Materials and Methods

The host plants of all samples of the new species were determined by the staff of Prof. L. Q. Li and Prof. X. C. Zhang, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Aphid terminology in this paper generally follows Heie (1994) and Qiao et al. (2006). The measurements are in millimeters.

Specimen depositories: the specimens examined in this study, including types, are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, except the specimens of Micromyzus judenkoi Carver in the Natural History Museum, London, U.K. (BMNH).

Abbreviations in Tables: Ant. I, II, III, IV, V, VIb: antennal segments I, II, III, IV, V, and the base of Ant. VI, respectively; PT: processus terminalis; b.d.III: basal diameter of antennal segment III; URS: ultimate rostral segment; BW URS: basal width of ultimate rostral segment; MW hind tibia: middle diameter of hind tibia; BW SIPH: basal width of siphunculus; SIPH: siphunculus; DW SIPH: distal width of siphunculus; BW Cauda: basal width of cauda; Setae on Tergite I: marginal setae on abdominal tergite I; Setae on Tergite VIII: spinal setae on abdominal tergite VIII.

Nomenclature

This publication and the nomenclature it contains have been registered in ZooBank. The LSID number is: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BFF56AE4-4EF7-43FE-84B3-C1EAB114C0AA. It can be found online by inserting the LSID number after  www.zoobank.com/.

Taxonomic account

Key to genera of fern-feeding aphids in China

1. Tarsi atrophied and without claws; antennae 6-segmented; host-alternating between Viburnum and ferns (Figure 1a) Shinjia

- Tarsi normal, with 2 claws 2

2. Dorsal setae of body capitate or flabellate (Figure 1b); antennal tubercles developed, parallel or slightly diverging at inner sides; 1/3 basal part of siphunculus brown, others pale Idiopterus

- Dorsal setae of body normal, acute or blunt, but not capitate nor flabellate 3

3. Distal part of siphunculus with reticulations (Figure 1c); dorsum of body with distinct reticulations (Figures 1d–g) 4

- Distal part of siphunculus without reticulations; dorsum of body without distinct reticulations 5

4. Antennal segment III always without secondary rhinaria; dorsal setae of body short with acute to incrassate apices, always less than basal diameter of antennal segment III, without sclerites at bases (Figure 1d) Macromyzella

- Antennal segment III with or without secondary rhinaria; dorsal setae of body long and blunt, usually more than basal diameter of antennal segment III, with tubercles or sclerites at base (Figures 1e–g Macromyzus

5. Dorsal setae of body thick and long, usually as long as or more than basal diameter of antennal segment III (Figure 1h); processus terminalis 5.50–7.60 times as long as base of segment VI Micromyzodium

- Dorsal setae of body short, usually less than basal diameter of antennal segment III 6

6. Antennal tubercles highly developed, and distinctly converging at inner sides -Myzus

- Antennal tubercles distinct, but parallel or diverging at inner sides 7

7. Siphunculi distinctly swollen, the swelling width 1.30–1.70 times as long as width of the narrowest part (Figures 1j, 3g, 4f). Dorsum of head smooth; distal part of femora or tibiae usually with imbrications or spinules; with shorter setae, which are without sclerites at base Amphorophora

- Siphunculi cylindrical or slightly swollen, but if swelling, then the swelling width at most 1.10–1.20 times as long as width of the narrowest part 8

8. Dorsum of head smooth, except near eyes with C-shaped wrinkles; dorsum of body with C- or O-shaped wrinkles; wing viens normal, without border Vietaphis gen.nov.

- Dorsum of head spinulose, at least on marginal areas; dorsum of body smooth, or weakly reticulate, if with wrinkles, but no C- and O-shaped; wing veins dark brown or strongly bordered 9

9. First tarsal segments usually with 4 setae; abdominal tergites without marginal tubercles; alatae without a dark dorsal central patch on abdomen Micromyzus

- First tarsal segments usually with 3 setae; abdominal tergites I–VI usually with marginal tubercles; alatae with a dark dorsal central patch on abdomen Micromyzella

Amphorophora Buckton (new record for China)

  • Amphorophora Buckton, 1876: 187. Type species: Amphorophora ampullata Buckton, 1876.

  • Eunectarosiphon del Guercio, 1913: 188. Type species: Aphis rubi Kaltenbach, 1843.

  • Rhopalosiphum van der Goot, 1913: 146, nec Koch, 1854. Type species: Amphorophora ampullata Buckton, 1876.

  • Comment: Two species of the genus, i.e., A. ampullata Buckton and A. scabripes Miyazaki, are fern-feeders. Amphorophora ampullata is being applied to a complex of species with different fern associations.

    On A. ampullata, the populations in America are regarded as a subspecies, A. ampullata laingi Mason, and mainly associated with Onoclea sensibilis and Matteuccia spp. (Onocleaceae), and the ones in Northeast India and Nepal are regarded as another subspecies, A. ampullata bengalensis Hille Ris Lambers & Basu, which colonize various ferns (Blackman and Eastop 2006). Here, A. ampullata bengalensis is recognized for the first time in China.

    Miyazaki (1968) described another fernfeeding aphid species of the genus Amphorophora, namely A. scabripes. Comparing with the original description of the species, some specimens from Guizhou, China, on Pentarhizidium intermedium are very close to this species, but differ from it in the number of secondary rhinaria on antennal segment III, the ratio of ultimate rostral segment to second segment of hind tarsus. So, these specimens are herein regarded as a new subspecies, A. scabripes galba ssp. nov. The new subspecies lives on the undersides of fronds of ferns. Thus, there are two subspecies of fern-feeders in the genus from China.

  • Key to fern-feeding aphid species of Amphorophora in China based on apterous viviparous females

    1. Antennal segment III with 2–9 secondary rhinaria (Figure 1k); ultimate rostral segment 1.27–1.43 times as long as second hind tarsal segment Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis

    - Antennal segment III with 21–50 secondary rhinaria (Figures 3b, 4c); ultimate rostral segment 0.96–1.12 times as long as second hind tarsal segment Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov.

    Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis Hille Ris Lambers & Basu (new record for China) (Figure 2)

  • Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis Hille Ris Lambers & Basu, 1966: 14.

  • Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis Hille Ris Lambers & Basu: Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 23; Raychaudhuri, 1980: 96; Ghosh, 1986: 54; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 71; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1039.

  • Material examined: China. Guangdong: 4 apterous viviparous females, Guangzhou City (E113.13°, N238.17°), altitude 7 m, 26.iii.1984, on a kind of fern, by B.Y. Ye (No. Y7857); 1 apterous viviparous female, Ruyuan County (E113.08°, N25.10°), altitude 1399 m, 11.vii.2008, on a kind of fern, by X.M. Su (No. 21790); Fujian: 2 apterous viviparous females, Wuyishan Mountain (E109.48°, N30.27°), altitude 461 m, 4.vii.2003, on a kind of fern, by X.L. Huang (No. 14403); 1 apterous oviparous female and 3 apterous viviparous females, Meihuashan Mountain (E116.09°, N25.29°), altitude 1130 m, 4.xi.2008, on a kind of fern, by H.H. Zhang and F.Q. Chen (No. 22025); Hunan: 2 apterous viviparous females, Liling County (E116.09°, N25.29°), altitude 868 m, 7.vii.2008, on a kind of fern, by X.M. Su (No. 21730); 2 apterous viviparous females, Guidong County (E113.07°, N25.10°), altitude 1143 m, 10.vii.2008, on a kind of fern, by X.M. Su (No. 21758); 1 apterous viviparous female, Yizhang County (E112.10°, N24.10°), altitude 1572 m, 14.vii.2008, on a kind of fern, by X.M. Su (No. 21814); Tibet: 1 alate nymph, 1 apterous nymph, Yadong County (E88.9°, N27.48°), altitude 3747 m, 17.viii.2010, on Dryopteris chrysocoma, by Y. Wang (No. 25925).

  • Host plants: Athyrium sp. (Athyriaceae) (Raychaudhuri 1974); Asplenium sp. (Aspleniaceae), Cheilanthes sp. (Sinopteridaceae) (Ghosh 1974; Raychaudhuri 1974); Pteridium aquilinum (Pteridiaceae) (Ghosh, Ghosh and Raychaudhuri 1970); Polypodium sp. (Polypodiaceae) (Raychaudhuri 1980). Dryopteris chrysocoma (Dryopteridaceae) is newly added to the list of host plants (Figure 17A).

  • Distribution: China (Guangdong, Fujian, Hunan, Tibet), India, and Nepal.

  • Biology: This aphid colonizes on ferns (Figure 17A). The oviparous female still can be observed in November in South China.

  • Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov. (Table 1 and Figures 34)

  • Type locality: China (Guizhou, E 107.1°, N28.2°, altitude 1470 m).

  • Etymology: The species name consists in “galbus” (= yellow in Latin). The species is named after its yellow body color when it is alive.

  • Description: Apterous viviparous female: Body elongated oval, yellow, antennae, legs and siphunculi dark brown when alive (Figure 17B).

  • Mounted specimens: Body pale brown (Figure 4a), 3.62–4.78 mm long and 1.92–2.57 mm wide. For general measurements see Table 1.

  • Head: slightly brown, smooth or faintly wrinkled dorsally, and sparse spinules near antennal tubercles ventrally (Figures 3a, 4b). Median frontal tubercle slightly prominent; antennal tubercles developed, slightly diverging at inner sides; with 2 pairs of antennal tubercles setae and a pair of median frontal setae. Dorsal setae of head long and incrassate apices, with 2 pairs of setae between antennae, arranged longitudinally, and 2 pairs of setae between compound eyes, arranged transversely. Cephalic setae 0.80–1.00 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III. Ventral setae similar to dorsal ones with acute apices. Eyes large with distinct ocular tubercles. Antennae 6-segmented, inner margin of antennal segment I, apex of antennal segment III, secondary rhinaria around, apices of antennal segments IV–V, and the base of segment VI distally dark brown, antennal segments I and II spinulose ventrally and smooth dorsally, segment III smooth; segments IV–VI imbricated, ones on segment IV weak (Figures 3b, c, 4c). Antennae 1.00–1.50 times as long as body, length in proportion of segments I–VI: 17–19, 9–10, 100, 67–82, 56–57, 18-23+94-103, processus terminalis 4.33–5.21 times as long as the base of the segment. Antennal setae thick, and short, segments I–VI each with 12–14, 5 or 6, 38–40, 22–24 , 11–14, 10-12+3 setae, respectively, apex of processus terminalis with 3 setae; setae on segment III 0.28–0.43 times as long as basal diameter of the segment. Primary rhinaria cili ated, segment III with 21–50 round and protuberant secondary rhinaria. Rostrum reaching beyond middle coxae, ultimate rostral segment wedge-shaped, apex dark brown and spinulose (Figures 3d, 4d), 1.40–1.82 times as long as its basal width, 0.96–1.12 times as long as second segment of hind tarsus, with 6 primary setae and 8 secondary setae.

  • Thorax: legs long. Fore and middle femora distally, and hind femora dark brown except for 1/5 basal part pale, distal parts of tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Coxae with spinules ventrally, femora and tibiae distally spinulose, first tarsal segments spinulose (Figures 3f, 4e), others smooth. Hind femora 1.15–1.38 times as long as antennal segment III. Hind tibiae 0.84–1.03 times as long as body, setae on hind tibiae thick, long and incrassate apices, 0.80–1.04 times as long as middle diameter of the segment. First tarsal chaetotaxy: 3, 3, 3. Hind tibiae of nymph with spinules.

  • Abdomen: abdominal tergites I–VI smooth, posterior areas of siphunculi, tergites VII and VIII with spinules. Venter with transverse rows of spinules. Spiracles nephroid, spiracular plates pale brown and slightly prominent. Dorsal setae on abdominal tergites I–VI thick and short, with blunt apices, setae on tergites VII and VIII a little longer than anterior ones. Ventral setae long and acute. Tergites VIII with 8 long setae. Siphunculi dark brown except for 1/6-1/7 basal part pale brown, and with different degree pigmented patches, cylindrical, slightly unsymmetrical swollen on distal half, sparse wrinkled, with two rows of corrugates under developed flange (Figures 3g, 4f), 0.19–0.21 times as long as body, 5.67–6.81 times as long as its basal width, the widest part 0.77–1.08 times as long as its basal width, 2.03–2.22 times as long as cauda. Cauda pale, thick coniform, distal part slightly blunt (Figures 3h, 4g), with 20–24 setae. Anal plate pale, transverse oval, with 10 setae. Genital plate pale, broad round with 12–14 posterior setae and 4 anterior setae.

  • Alate viviparous female: Body yellow with dark brown head, thorax, legs and siphunculi in life.

  • Mounted specimens: body pale brown (Figure 4h), 4.23–4.30 mm long and 1.75–1.78 mm wide. For general measurements see Table 1.

  • Head: slightly brown and smooth with sparse wrinkles dorsally and ventrally. Antennal tubercles developed, slightly diverging at inner sides. Dorsal setae of head long and blunt, 0.76–0.96 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III. Antennae 6-segmented, brown except for basal part of segment III pale. Antennae 1.45–1.50 times as long as body, length in proportion of segments I–VI: 16–17, 9, 100, 73–76, 58–61, 20–22+105–107, processus terminalis 4.85–5.42 times as long as the base of the segment. Primary rhinaria ciliated, segment III with 85–90 large secondary rhinaria (Figs 3i, 3j). Setae on segment III 0.33–0.39 times as long as basal diameter of the segment. Apex of rostrum dark brown and spinulose, 1.67–1.86 times as long as its basal width, 1.03–1.06 times as long as second segment of hind tarsus, with 6 primary setae and 8 accessory setae.

  • Thorax: legs long, femora brown except for basal part pale, distal parts of tibiae, tarsi dark brown. Coxae with spinules ventrally, 1/5 distal parts of femora, distal parts of tibiae and first tarsal segments spinulose, others smooth. Hind femora 1.26–1.33 times as long as antennal segment III. Hind tibiae 0.90–0.91 times as long as body; setae on hind tibiae 0.78–1.05 times as long as middle diameter of the segment. First tarsal chaetotaxy: 3, 3, 3. Abdomen: abdominal tergites smooth. Abdominal tergites II–IV with very pale marginal sclerites. Dorsal setae similar to ones of apterae. Tergite VIII with 8 long setae. Siphunculi 0.19–0.20 times as long as body, 6.96–7.39 times as long as its basal width, the widest part 0.90–0.93 times as long as its basal width, 2.18–2.24 times as long as cauda. Cauda pale brown, slightly thinner than ones of apterae, with 20–24 setae. Anal plate with 10–14 setae. Genital plate with 12 posterior setae and 4 anterior setae. Wing veins normal. Others are similar to apterae.

  • Holotype: apterous viviparous female, China. Guizhou: Zunyi City (E107.1°, N28.2°), altitude 1470 m, 6.vi.2010, on Pentarhizidium intermedium, by X.M. Su (No. 24557).

  • Paratypes: China. Guizhou: 1 alate viviparous female, same data as holotype (No. 24557); 1 apterous nymph, 1 alate viviparous female, 1 apterous viviparous female, Zunyi City (E107.1°, N28.2°), altitude 1470 m, 7.vi.2010, on Pentarhizidium intermedium, by X.M. Su (No. 24562, 24564); 2 apteous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.1°, N28.2°), altitude 1470 m, 14.viii.2010, on Pentarhizidium intermedium, by X.M. Su (No. 25627); 2 apteous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.1°, N28.2°), altitude 1470 m, 15.viii.2010, on Pentarhizidium intermedium, by X.M. Su (No. 25628).

  • Host plant: Pentarhizidium intermedium (Onocleaceae).

  • Distribution: China (Guizhou).

  • Biology: The species infests scatteringly on the undersides of the distal parts of fronds of fern, and without causing distinct injury (Figure 17B). The species was not attended by ants.

  • Comment: The new subspecies is very closed to the nominate subspecies, Amphorophora scabripes scabripes Miyazaki, but differs from the latter in: (1) apterae yellow with dark brown antennae, legs and siphunculi except for basal part pale in life (the latter: apterae pale green with a pair of longitudinal dark green stripes dorsally, and black-tipped siphunculi), (2) antennal segment III with 21–50 secondary rhinaria in apterae, 85–90 ones in alatae (the latter: antennal segment III with 19–27 ones in apterae, 53–69 ones in alatae), (3) ultimate rostral segment with 8 accessory setae (the latter: with 4–6 accessory setae), (4) cauda with 20–24 setae (the latter: with 15–20 setae)(the material of the nominate subspecies from Miyazaki 1968).

  • Idiopterus Davis (new record for China)

  • Idiopterus Davis, 1909: 198. Type species: Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909

  • Fullawayella del Guercio, 1911: 462. Type species: Macrosiphum kirkaldyi Fullaway, 1910.

  • Neomacromyzus Lee, 2006: 493. Type species: Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee, 2006.

  • Comment: The genus is a monotypic genus for one fern-feeding species, Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis. Lee (2006) reported a new fern-feeding aphid genus Neomacromyzus Lee and a new species, Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee on Cyrtomium falcatum from the southernmost region of Korea, but based on the original description, the genus Neomacromyzus Lee is herein considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus Davis. As a result Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee is transferred to the genus Idiopterus as Idiopterus cyrtomicola (Lee) comb. nov., which is herein considered as a junior synonym of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis.

  • Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis (new record for China) (Figure 5)

  • Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909: 199.

  • Macrosiphum kirkaldyi Fullaway, 1910: 462.

  • Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee, 2006: 493. Syn. nov.

  • Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis: Heie, 1994: 83; Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 223; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 102; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1174.

  • Material examined: China. Chongqing: 4 apterous viviparous females, Jinfoshan Mountain (E107.15°, N29.02°), altitude 1906 m, 14.vi.2010, on Pteris vittata, by F.Q. Chen (No. 24608).

  • Host plants: Asplenium sp., Pteridium spp. and Polypodium sp. (Heie 1994); Cyrtomium falcatum (Dryopteridaceae) (Lee 2006). Adiantum edgeworthii A. fritz-luedtii, A. hispidulum, A. pedatum (Adiantaceae); Anthurium andreanum (Araceae); Aphelandra squarrosa (Acanthaceae); Aspidium trifoliatum (Aspidiaceae); Blechnum patersonii (Blechnaceae); Crocus sp. (Iridaceae); Cyrtomium falcatum (Aspidiaceae); Dryopteris filix-mas (Aspidiaceae); Davallia bullata (Davalliaceae), Dennstaedtia adianthoides (Dennstaedtiaceae), Microlepia speluncae (Dennstaedtiaceae), Pellaea hastata (Sinopteridaceae), Phyllitis scolopendrium (Aspleniaceae), Platycerium alcicorne (Polypodiaceae), P. aureum, P. lycopodioides, P. piloselloides (Polypodiaceae); Polystichum plumosum densum, P. setiferum (Aspidiaceae); Pteris childsii, P. cretica, P. pancheris, P. roeveni?, P. wimsetti? (Pteridaceae); Saintpaulia ionantha (Gesneriaceae), Saxifraga stolonifera (Saxifragaceae), Sedum dasyphyllum (Crassulaceae), Streptocarpus hybridus (Gesneriaceae), Tulipa sp. (Liliaceae), Zantedeschia aethiopica (Araceae) (Iglisch 1963). Blechnum occidentale (Blechnaceae), Davallia canariensis, D. platyphylla (Davalliaceae); Nephrodium sp. (Aspidiaceae), Nephrolepis sp. (Oleandraceae), Polypodium revolutum (Polypodiaceae), (Hille Ris Lambers 1949). Adonis sp. (Ranunculaceae), Asplenium adiantum-nigrum (Aspleniaceae), Nephrolepis exaltata (Oleandraceae), Pteris sp. (Pteridaceae) (Börner 1952). Adiantum capillus-veneris (Adiantaceae) (Leclant and Remaudière 1974). Asplenium sp. (Aspleniaceae) (Hodjat 1998); Asplenium adiantumnigrum (Aspleniaceae) (Börner 1952; Eastop 1953). Asplenium hemionitis (Aspleniaceae), Polypodium sp. (Polypodiaceae) (Nieto Nafría et al. 1984). Asplenium marinum (Aspleniaceae) (Shaw 1964). Asplenium nidus, A. rutamuraria (Aspleniaceae) Pteris tremula (Pteridaceae), Onychium japonicum (Orchidaceae) (Werder 1931); Ceterach officinarium (Aspleniaceae), Asplenium trichomanes (Aspleniaceae), Dryopteris sp. (Aspidiaceae) (Steffan 1962). Pteris vittata (Pteridaceae) is newly added to the list of the host plants (Figure 17C).

  • Distribution: China (Chongqing); perhaps Neotropical in origin (Holman 1974), now almost cosmopolitan, but confined to glasshouses and caves in northern temperate regions (Blackman and Eastop 2006).

  • Biology: The species feeds on the undersides of fronds of ferns (Figure 17C), and anholocyclic (Heie 1994). The species was not seen attended by ants.

  • Macromyzella Ghosh, Basu & Raychaudhuri

  • Macromyzella Ghosh, Basu & Raychaudhuri, 1977: 582. Type species: Myzus polypodicola Takahashi, 1921.

  • Comment: The genus is found infesting fern species and is mainly distributed in East Asia. The genus is related to Macromyzus, but differs from it in: members of the genus with shorter setae, which are without sclerites at base, and antennal segment III always without secondary rhinaria.

  • Macromyzella polypodicola (Takahashi) (Figure 6)

  • Myzus polypodicola Takahashi, 1921: 21.

  • Macromyzella polypodicola (Takahashi): Raychaudhuri, 1980: 161; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 102; Noordam, 2004: 99; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1191.

  • Material examined: China. Taiwan: 3 alate viviparous females, E 120.95°, N23.7°, altitude 1090 m, 21.iii.1961, on a kind of fern, by E.I. Schhiqer (No. Y7956); Hubei: 5 alate viviparous females, 2 apterous viviparous females, Enshi City (E109.48°, N30.27°), altitude 461 m, 22.x.1977, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Zhang (No. 6703); Fujian: 1 apterous viviparous female, Wuyishan Mountain (E109.48°, N30.27°), altitude 461 m, 6.vii.2003, on a kind of fern, by X.L. Huang (No. 14427); 1 alate viviparous female, 3 apterous viviparous females, Wuping County (E116.19°, N25.2°), altitude 579 m, 19.xi.2008, on a kind of fern, by H.H. Zhang (No. 22136); Guangxi: 2 apterous viviparous females, Jiuwandashan Mountain (E116.19°, N25.20°), altitude 1000 m, 2.viii.2003, on a kind of fern, by J.Y. Yang (No. 14652); Guangdong: 2 apterous viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.21°, N24.09°), altitude 1318 m, 18.vii.2008, on Cyclosorus dentatus? by X.M. Su (No. 21855); Hainan: 5 apterous viviparous females, Changjiang Lizu Autonomous County (E109.18°, N19.09°), altitude 1015 m, 8.v.2007, on a kind of fern, by D. Zhang (No. 19610); Sichuan: 1 apterous viviparous female, Chengdu City (E103.07°, N31.05°), altitude 722 m, 12.v.2009, on a kind of fern, by X.M. Su (No. 22519); Guizhou: 5 apterous viviparous females, Mayang River (E108.5°, N28.34°), altitude 537 m, 11.vi.2007, on a kind of fern, by Y. Fang (No.19749); 4 apterous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 3.vi.2010, on Cyclosorus acuminatus, by X.M. Su (Nos. 24511, 24519); 2 apterous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 4.vi.2010, on Cyclosorus acuminatus, by X.M. Su (No. 24534); 2 apterous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.09°, N28.13°), altitude 1534 m, 5.vi.2010, on Cyclosorus acuminatus, by X.M. Su (No. 24550); 1 alate viviparous female, 3 apterous nymphs, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 11.viii.2010, on Cyclosorus acuminatus, by X.M. Su (Nos. 25595, 25597, 25581, 25600); 2 apteous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 12.viii.2010, on Cyclosorus acuminatus, by X.M. Su (No. 25602); 4 apteous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 13.viii.2010, on Cyclosorus acuminatus, by X.M. Su (Nos. 25614, 25617); 2 apteous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.1°, N28.2°), altitude 1470 m, 16.viii.2010, on Cyclosorus acuminatus, by X.M. Su (No. 25636).

  • Host plants: Asplenium esculentum, Asplenium sp. (Aspleniaceae) (Raychaudhuri 1980); Dryopteris arida (Aspidiaceae) (Ghosh 1974a; Miyazaki 1968, 1971; Takahashi 1931; Tao 1963, 1964); Cheilanthes farinosa (Pteridaceae) (Ghosh 1964); Diplazium esculentum (Aspleniaceae) (Ghosh 1973, 1977; Raychaudhuri 1973, 1980); Diplazium japonicum (Aspleniaceae), Polystichum rigens ? (Blackman and Eastop 2006); Polystichum sp. (Tao 1963); Pteridium spp. (Hypolepidaceae) (Paik 1972). Cyclosorus acuminatus and C. dentatus ? (Thelypteridaceae) are newly recorded to the list of the host plants (Figure 17D).

  • Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Taiwan), Japan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Britain, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia (Sumatra).

  • Biology: The species infests on the undersides of fronds of ferns (Figure 17D).

  • Macromyzus Takahashi

  • Macromyzus Takahashi, 1960: 225. Type species: Myzus woodwardiae Takahashi, 1921

  • Comment: Genus Macromyzus is divided into two subgenera, Macromyzus and Anthracosiphoniella, and is restricted to East Asia, including five species mainly colonizing on ferns. In China, the genus is represented by three species belonging to two subgenera, namely, M. (Anthracosiphoniella) maculatus, M. (Macromyzus) spinosus and M. (Macromyzus) woodwardiae.

  • Keys to species of Macromyzus in China Apterous viviparous female

    1. Antennal segment III always with secondary rhinaria; thoracic nota and abdominal tergites II–V with pairs of spinal sclerites, and dorsum of body without reticulations and hair-bearing tubercles (Figure 1e Macromyzus (Anthracosiphoniella) maculatum

    - Antennal segment III without secondary rhinaria; dorsum of body with distinct reticulations or hair-bearing tubercles, or sclerites 2

    2. Antennal setae very short with blunt apices, 0.36–0.46 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III; dorsal setae of body with dark sclerites at bases, which with dense ornaments and big spinules (Figure 1f); processus terminalis 6.08–6.43 times as long as the base of segment VI Macromyzus (Macromyzus) spinosus

    - Antennal setae long with blunt apices, 1.00–1.30 times as long as basal diameter of the segment; dorsal setae of body with dark brown sclerites at bases, which without any ornaments, or sometimes only with very few big spinules (Figure 1g); processus terminalis 5.19–6.31 times as long as the base of segment VI Macromyzus (Macromyzus) woodwardiae

    Alate viviparous female (Apterae of Macromyzus spinosus Qiao & Su absent)

    1. Antennal segments III–IV with 16–19 and 3–9 secondary rhinaria, respectively; processus terminalis 5.79–6.92 times as long as base of the segment; ultimate rostral segment 1.81–2.03 times as long as second hind tarsal segment Macromyzus woodwardiae

    - Antennal segments III–IV with 14–28 and 1–6 secondary rhinaria, respectively; processus terminalis 4.82–5.44 times as long as base of the segment; ultimate rostral segment 1.33–1.55 times as long as second hind tarsal segment Macromyzus (Anthracosiphoniella) Maculatum

    Macromyzus spinosus Qiao & Su (Figure 7)

  • Macromyzus spinosus Qiao & Su, 2010: 1.

  • Material examined: China. Hunan: 2 apterous viviparous females and 1 apterous nymph (Holotype and paratypes), Yizhang County (E112.09°, N24.10°), altitude 1271 m, 14.vii.2008, on Plagiogyria japonica, X.M. Su (No. 21804); 2 apterous viviparous females, Hunan, Yizhang County (E112.09°, N24.10°), altitude 1271 m, 14.vii.2008, on Plagiogyria japonica (Plagiogyriaceae), X.M. Su (No. 21808).

  • Host plant: Plagiogyria japonica (Plagiogyriaceae).

  • Distribution: China (Hunan).

  • Biology: The species infests the undersides of fronds of fern, without causing any deformations to the hosts, and was not attended by ants.

  • Macromyzus woodwardiae (Takahashi) (Figure 8)

  • Myzus woodwardiae Takahashi, 1921: 20.

  • Macrosiphum woodwardiae Takahashi, 1925b: 3.

  • Myzus woodwardiae hinoi Moritsu, 1952: 26.

  • Macromyzus woodwardiae (Takahashi): Takahashi, 1960: 225; Tao, 1963: 168; 1990: 278; 1999: 73; Miyazaki, 1968: 19; 1971: 81; 1972: 36; Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 248; Raychaudhuri, 1980: 165; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 108; Lee, 2002: 127; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1191.

  • Material examined: China. Hainan: 4 apterous viviparous females, Ledong County (E109. 02°, N18.44°), altitude 156 m, 24.iii.1984, on a kind of fern, by T.S. Zhong and G.X. Zhang (No. 7855); Chongqing: 2 apterous viviparous females and 9 apterous nymphs, Jingyunshan Mountain (E106.55°, N29.55°), altitude 275 m, 27.iv.1991, on a kind of fern, by T.S. Zhong and G.X. Zhang (No. 10014); Hunan: 14 apterous viviparous females, Guidong County (E113.07°, N25.10°), altitude 1143 m, 10.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21757, 21774, 21778); 2 apterous viviparous females and 1 apterous nymph, Guidong County (E113.08°, N26.07°), altitude 1525 m, 12.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (No. 21801); 1 apterous viviparous female, Yizhang County (E112.09°, N24.09°), altitude 1271 m, 14.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (No. 21806); 2 apterous viviparous females and 4 alate viviparous females, Yizhang County (E113.16°, N24.10°), altitude 1339 m, 17.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21840, 21842); Guangdong: 14 apterous viviparous females and 7 alate viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.02°, N24.93°), altitude 1021 m, 16.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21818, 21819, 21820, 21821, 21826, 21829, 21830, 21833, 21834); 2 apterous viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.03°, N24.94°), altitude 1318 m, 18.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21858, 21871); 16 apterous viviparous females and 5 alate viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.03°, N24.94°), altitude 1394 m, 19.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, X.M. Su (Nos. 21860, 21861, 21862, 21863, 21864, 21870, 21874, 21877, 21893); 1 apterous viviparous female and 4 alate viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.02°, N24.94°), altitude 1266 m, 20.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (No. 21889); 1 apterous viviparous female, Ruyuan County, (E113.02°, N24.94°), altitude 1266 m, 20.vii.2008, on Arachniodes chinensis, by X. M. Su (No. 21878); 1 apterous viviparous female, Ruyuan County (E113.02°, N24.94°), altitude 1266 m, 20.vii.2008, on Diplopterygium glaucum, by X.M. Su (No. 21880); 4 apterous viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.03°, N24.92°), altitude 831 m, 21.vii.2008, on Blechnum oritental, by X.M. Su (No. 21902); 6 apterous viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.03°, N24.92°), altitude 831 m, 21.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21901, 21903, 21914); 17 apterous viviparous females and 2 alate viviparous females, Shixing County (E114.21°, N24.74°), altitude 508 m, 23.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21918, 21920, 21924, 21928, 21931, 21923, 21933, 21935, 21937); 1 apterous viviparous female, Shixing County (E114.21°, N24.74°), altitude 508 m, 23.vii.2008, on Dryopteris fuscipes, by X.M. Su (No. 21919); 1 apterous viviparous female, Shixing County (E114.26°, N24.72°), altitude 590 m, 23.vii.2008, on Microlepia margniata, X.M. Su (No. 21936); 2 apterous viviparous females and 2 alate viviparous females, Shixing County (E114.21°, N24.74°), altitude 508 m, 23.vii.2008, on Dryopteris fuscipes, by X.M. Su (No. 21926); 4 apterous viviparous females, Shixing County (E114.28°, N24.72°), altitude 522 m, 24.vii.2008, on Woodwardia japonica, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21951. 21962).

  • Distribution: China (Chongqing, Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Taiwan), India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea and Nepal.

  • Host plants: Primary hosts: Hydrangea involucrata (Hydrangeaceae) (Miyazaki 1968; Moritsu 1983); H. macrophylla (Miyazaki 1972); H. macrophylla yezoensis, H. paniculata, H. scandens, H. sikokiana, (Hydrangeaceae) (Moritsu 1983). Secondary hosts: Asplenium adiantum-nigum (Aspleniaceae), A. auriculatum (Aspleniaceae), Athyrium macrocarpum (Athyriaceae), Dicheria alata (Polypodiaceae), Diplazium esculentum (Aspleniaceae), Niphrodium moli, Polypodium sp. (Polypodiaceae), Thelypteris dentata (Thelypteridaceae) (Raychaudhuri 1980); Asplenium cunicularium, A. esculentum (Aspleniaceae) (Ghosh 1974a); Cyrtomium falcatum, Cyrtomium presl (Lee 2002); Dryopteris monticola (Dryopteridaceae), Dryopteris varia (Dryopteridaceae), Rumobra mutica (Miyazaki 1968, 1971); Woodwardia sp.(Blechnaceae), Polystichum sp. (Dryopteridaceae) (Takahashi 1921; Tao 1963); Athyrium macrocarpus, Woodwardia radicans (Blackman and Eastop 2006); Diplazium esculentum (Aspleniaceae) (Ghosh 1974a, 1977; Ghosh, Ghosh and Raychaudhuri 1970; Raychaudhuri 1973); Asplenium cunicularium (Aspleniaceae) (Ghosh 1974); Rumohra mutica (Aspidiaceae) (Ghosh 1974a; Higuchi and Miyazaki 1969; Miyazak, 1968, 1971; Moritsu 1983); Deutzia gracilis (Hydrangeaceae) (Moritsu 1983); Dryopteris monticola (Aspidiaceae) (Higuchi and Miyazaki 1969; Miyazaki 1968, 1971; Moritsu 1983); Arachniodes chinensis (Dryopteridaceae), Blechnum oritentale (Blechnaceae), Diplopterygium glaucum (Gleicheniaceae), Dryopteris fuscipes (Dryopteridaceae), Microlepia marginata (Dennstaedtiaceae) and Woodwardia japonica (Blechnaceae).

  • Biology: The species colonized on undersides or upsides of fronds and new growth of ferns (Figure 17G) in many genera. Anholocyclic on ferns in most places, but in Japan, it is apparently also partially heteroecious holocyclic. Adult fundatrices occurred in late April or early May. They infest young leaves and tender shoots of Hydrangea spp., without causing any deformations to the hosts (Miyazaki 1972).

  • Macromyzus (Anthracosiphoniella) maculatus (Basu)(Figure 9)

  • Anthracosiphoniella maculatus Basu, 1969: 169; Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 32. Macromyzus maculatus (Basu): Raychaudhuri, 1980: 166; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 108; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1191; Su & Qiao, 2010: 1.

  • Material examined: China. Sichuan: 7 apterous viviparous females and 5 alate viviparous females, Emei Mountain, (E103.32°, N29.32°), 12.viii.1936, on a kind of fern, by Takahashi, R. (No. Y7957); Guangxi: 1 apterous viviparous female and 1 apterous nymph, Napo County (E105.82°, N23.38°), altitude 924 m, 4.iv.1998, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Qiao (No. 11733); Tibet: 4 apterous viviparous females, Pailong County, Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon (E95.00°, N30.02°), altitude 2086 m, 2.ix.2005, on a kind of fern, by D. Zhang (No. 18393); Guizhou: 4 apterous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 3.vi.2010, on Phegopteris decursive-pinnata, by X.M. Su (Nos. 24518, 24520); 1 alate viviparous female, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 3.vi.2010, on Pronephrium penangianum, by X.M. Su (No. 24521); 6 apterous viviparous females and 2 alate viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 4.vi.2010, on Athyriopsis ptersenii, by X.M. Su (Nos. 24527, 245312, 24532, 24536); 4 apterous viviparous females and 1 alate viviparous female, Zunyi City (E114.28°, N28.13°), altitude 1534 m, 6.vi.2010, on Athyriopsis ptersenii, by X.M. Su (Nos. 24552, 24555, 24556); 1 alate viviparous female, Zunyi City (E114.28°, N28.13°), altitude 1534 m, 7.vi.2010, on Athyriopsis ptersenii, by X.M. Su (No. 24559); 1 apterous viviparous female, Zunyi City (E107.15°, N28.21°), altitude 1369 m, 8.vi.2010, on Athyriopsis ptersenii, by X.M. Su (No. 24579); 1 alate viviparous female and 1 apterous viviparous female, Zunyi City (E107.15°, N28.21°), altitude 1369 m, 9.vi.2010, on Parathelypteris nipponica, by X.M. Su (No. 24587); 2 apterous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 13.viii.2010, on Athyriopsis ptersenii, by X.M. Su (Nos. 25608, 25624); 3 apterous viviparous females, 1 apterous nymph, Zunyi City (E114.28°, N28.13°), altitude 1534 m, 14.viii.2010, on Parathelypteris glanduligera? by X.M. Su (No. 25625); 3 apterous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E114.28°, N28.13°), altitude 1534 m, 15.viii.2010, on Pronephrium penangianum, by X.M. Su (Nos. 25630, 25633).

  • Host plants: Dryopteris molli (Aspidaceae), Asplenium esculentum (Aspleniaceae), Athyrium sp. (Polypodiaceae), Diplazium esculentum (Aspleniaceae), Thelypteris dentata (Thelypteridaceae) (Basu, 1969; Ghosh, 1974a, 1977; Raychaudhuri, 1973, 1980); Eriosorus sp. (Blackman and Eastop, 2006); Athyriopsis ptersenii (Athyriaceae), Parathelypteris glanduligera ? (Thelypteridaceae), Phegopteris decursive-pinnata (Thelypteridaceae) and Pronephrium penangianum (Thelypteridaceae).

  • Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Tibet) and India.

  • Biology: The species infests on the undersides of fronds of ferns (Figure 17E). Apparently anholocyclic (Ghosh 1974a).

  • Micromyzella Eastop

  • Micromyzella Eastop, 1955: 203. Type species: Myzus pterisoides Theobald, 1918.

  • Comment: The genus was originally described as subgenus of Micromyzus van der Goot, but with 2–3 setae on first tarsal segments, wing veins normal, and alatae with a dorsal spinal patch. The genus is composed of 12 mostly fern-feeding aphids, and only one species distributes in China.

  • Micromyzella judenkoi (Carver)

  • Micromyzus judenkoi Carver, 1965: 114; Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 281; Raychaudhuri, 1980: 204; Tao, 1999: 80.

  • Micromyzella judenkoi (Carver): Remaudière, Autrique, Eastop, Stary & Aymonin, 1985: 175; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 121; Qiao & Jiang, 2005: 584; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1229.

  • Material examined: China. Hong Kong: 2 alate viviparous females, E114.1°, N22.38°, altitude 460 m, April 1976, trapped in yellow trays, by H.Y. Lee (BMNH); 1 alate viviparous female, E114.1°, N22.38°, altitude 460 m, April 1975, trapped in yellow trays, H.Y. Lee (BMNH).

  • Host plants: Adiantum caudatum (Adiantaceae) (Chakrabarti 1984); Asplenium (Aspleniaceae), Athyrium sp. (Athyriaceae), Cheilanthes sp., Cheilanthes compositor (Pteridaceae) (Ghosh, Ghosh and Raychaudhuri 1970; Ghosh 1974a; Raychaudhuri 1973, 1980).

  • Distribution: China (Hong Kong), Australia, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

  • Biology: The species infests the undersides of fronds of ferns.

  • Micromyzodium David

  • Micromyzodium David, 1958: 175. Type species: Micromyzodium filicium David, 1958. Eomyzus Takahashi, 1960: 227. Type species: Myzus nipponicus Moritsu, 1949.

  • Comment: The genus is related to Micromyzus and Micromyzella, but members of Micromyzodium have long dorsal body setae and are mainly distributed in Asia. Two species colonized ferns worldwide, along with one species distributed in China.

  • Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi (new record for China) (Figure 10)

  • Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi, 1963: 61.

  • Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi: Miyazaki, 1971: 79; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 121; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1230.

  • Material examined: China. Jiangxi: 2 apterous viviparous females, Jinggangshan City, (E114.13°, N26.53°), altitude 909 m, 8.ix.1995, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Zhang (No. 10854); Hunan: 7 alate viviparous females and 3 apterous viviparous females, Cili County (E111.13°, N29.4°), altitude 131 m, 17.x.1988, on a kind of fern, by T.S. Zhong and W.Y. Zhang (Nos. 8984, 8986); Guizhou: 6 apterous viviparous females, Leigongshan Mountain (E108.28°, N26.47°), altitude 1630 m, 31.v.2005, on a kind of fern, by Y. Fang (No. 16204); Fujian: 4 apterous viviparous females, Wuyishan Mountain (E109.48°, N30.27°), altitude 461 m, 20.x.2005, on a kind of fern, by L.Y. Jiang (No. 18044); Zhejiang: 4 apterous viviparous females, Fengyangshan Mountain (E109.33°, N27.08°), altitude 491 m, 28.vii.2007, on a kind of fern, by Y. Fang (No. 20391); 5 apterous viviparous females, Fengyangshan Mountain (E109.33°, N27.08°), altitude 491 m, 1.viii.2007, on a kind of fern, by Y. Fang (No. 20432); Hunan: 1 alate viviparous female and 6 apterous viviparous females, Guidong County (E113.12°, N25.17°), altitude 1143 m, 10.vii.2008, on Parathelypteris glanduligera, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21761, 21764); Fujian: 2 apterous viviparous females, Nanjing County (E117.22°, N24.08°), altitude 332 m, 21.xi.2008, on a kind of fern, H.H. Zhang (No. 22141).

  • Host plants: Parathelypteris glanduligera (Thelypteridaceae), and unidentified ferns in Japan (Miyazaki 1971).

  • Distribution: China (Fujian, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang) and Japan.

  • Biology: Colonies are formed on the undersides of fronds of ferns.

  • Micromyzus van der Goot

  • Micromyzus van der Goot, 1917: 52. Type species: Micromyzus nigrum van der Goot, 1917.

  • Myzopsis Matsumura, 1918: 19. Type species: Myzopsis diervillae Matsumura, 1918.

  • Comment: Ten species infesting fern distribute in Eastern Asia. The genus is closed to Micromyzella, but first tarsal segments with 4 setae, and alatae having dark-bordered wing veins and a strongly curved radial sector. Only one species is reported in China.

  • Micromyzus katoi (Takahashi)(Figure 11)

  • Amphorophora katoi Takahashi, 1925b: 25. Micromyzus katoi (Takahashi): Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 281; Tao, 1999: 80; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 122; Noordam 2004: 101; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1230.

  • Material examined: China. Taiwan: 7 apterous viviparous females and 5 apterous nymphs, E120.95°, N23.7°, altitude 1090 m, 15.xi.1924, on a kind of fern, by R. Toyota (No. Y7950).

  • Host plants: Polypodium ellipticum (Takahashi 1925a, 1931; Tao 1963, 1967), Platycerium sp. (Platyceriaceae), Polypodium punctatum (Noordam 2004); Microsorium sp. (Polypodiaceae) (Blackman and Eastop 2006).

  • Distribution: China (Taiwan), Indonesia and Australia.

  • Biology: The aphids infest the lower sides of fronds of ferns.

  • Myzus Passerini

  • Myzus Passerini, 1860: 27. Type species: Aphis cerasi Fabricius, 1775.

  • Prunomyzus Hille Ris Lambers & Rogerson, 1946: 105. Type species: Myzus (Prunomyzus) padellus Hille Ris Lambers & Rogerson, 1946.

  • Comment: In the genus, only a species of fern-feeding aphid, Myzus filicis Basu, was discovered on an unidentified fern from India and Nepal. The species is distributed in China, too.

  • Myzus filicis Basu (new record for China) (Table 2, Figures 12–13)

  • Myzus filicis Basu, 1969: 181.

  • Myzus filicis Basu: Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 297; Raychaudhuri, 1980: 213; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 125; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1239.

  • Basu (1969) gave a concise description of apterae. On the basis of the present specimens, re-description of apterae and description of the hitherto unknown alatae are given below.

  • Apterous viviparous female: Body roundly oval, yellow in life.

  • Mounted specimens: body pale (Figure 13a) and broad oval, 1.30–1.56 mm long and 0.85–0.90 mm wide. General measurements see Table 2.

  • Head: slightly brown; with sparse wrinkles near eyes dorsally and spinulose ventrally (Figures 12a, 13b). Middle frontal tubercle indistinct, antennal tubercles very developed, with spinulose imbrications, converging at inner sides, with 3 pairs of antennal tubercles setae and a pair of median frontal setae. Dorsal setae of head short and slightly blunt apices, with 2 pairs of setae between antennae, arranged longitudinally and the anterior setae a little longer than the posterior ones; 2 pairs of setae between compound eyes, arranged transversely. Cephalic setae 0.012–0.022 mm long, the anterior dorsal setae about as long as cephalic ones, the posterior ones 0.0025 mm long, 0.70–1.00 and 0.10–0.11 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III, respectively. Ventral setae slightly longer than dorsal ones. Eyes with distinct ocular tubercles. Antennae 6-segmented, distal part of antennal segment III and antennal segments IV-VI dark brown, segments I and II smooth except for inner margin of segment I with sparse imbrications, segments III–VI imbricated, ones on segment III weak (Figures 12b, 12c). Antennae 0.63–0.79 times as long as body, length in proportion of segments I–VI: 25–27, 16–21, 100, 53–55, 44–46, 33–38+85–94; processus terminalis 2.26–2.97 times as long as basal part of the segment. Antennal setae short and blunt, segments I-VI each with 3 or 4, 3 or 4, 5 or 6, 2, 2, 2+3 setae, respectively, apex of processus terminalis with 3 setae; setae on segment III 0.11–0.22 times as long as basal diameter of the segment. Primary rhinaria ciliated, secondary rhinaria absent. Rostrum reaching between middle and hind coxae; ultimate rostral segment wedge-shaped, apex dark brown (Figures 12d, 13c), 1.83–2.05 times as long as its basal width, 1.30–1.31 times as long as second hind tarsal segment, with 6 primary setae and 4 accessory setae.

  • Thorax: thoracic nota with C-shaped wrinkles. Venter with spinulous transverse rows. Legs short, tarsi brown, coxae with spinules ventrally, distal parts of femora with sparse spinulous imbrications, and distal parts of hind tibiae very weakly spinulous to smooth, others smooth. Hind femur 1.34–1.44 times as long as antennal segment III. Hind tibiae 0.49–0.53 times as long as body; setae on hind tibiae short with acuminate apices, 0.67–0.80 times as long as middle diameter of the segment. First tarsal chaetotaxy: 3, 3, 2. Hind tibiae of nymph with spinules. Abdomen: abdominal tergites I-VI with C- or O-shaped wrinkles, posterior areas of siphunculi, tergites VII and VIII with spinules (Figure 13d). Venter with spinulous transverse rows. Spiracles nephroid, spiracular plates pale and slightly prominent. Dorsal setae on tergites I–VII very short and blunt, tergite VIII with 4 long setae. Siphunculi cylindrical, wholly brown, widest at base, distinct imbricated and with a row of striate under developed flange (Figures 12e, 13e), 0.22–0.26 times as long as body, 3.42–4.00 times as long as its basal width, 2.64 times as long as cauda. Cauda pale brown, coniform, distal half slightly constricted (Figures 12f, 13f), with 5 setae. Anal plate pale brown, transverse oval, with 8–10 setae. Genital plate pale brown, broad round with 10 posterior setae and 4 anterior setae.

  • Alate viviparous female: Mounted specimens: body pale (Figure13h), body 1.84 mm long, 0.82 mm wide. General measurements see Table 2.

  • Head: brown, and smooth dorsally and ventrally. Middle frontal tubercle indistinct, antennal tubercles low, parallel at inner sides, with 3 pairs of antennal tubercles setae and a pair of median frontal setae. Dorsal setae of head short and slightly blunt apices, with 2 pairs of setae between antennae, arranged longitudinally; 2 pairs of setae between eyes, arranged transversely. Cephalic setae 0.01 mm long, dorsal setae 0.005 mm long, 0.44 times and 0.22 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III, respectively. Antennae 6-segmented, dark brown, segments I and II smooth dorsally except for inner margin of segment I sparse imbricated, segments III–VI with imbrications, ones on segment III weak. Antennae 0.71 times as long as body, length in proportion of segments I–VI: 14, 11, 100, 48, 42, 27+88, processus terminalis 3.21 times as long as the base of the segment. Primary rhinaria ciliated, segments III–V with 18–22, 6–8 and 2 or 3 secondary rhinaria, respectively (Figures 14g, 14h). Antennal setae very short and acute, setae on segment III 0.44 times as long as basal diameter of the segment. Rostrum with 6 primary setae and 4 accessory setae.

  • Thorax: legs long, distal parts of femora with sparse imbrications, and distal parts of hind tibiae very weakly spinulous, others smooth. Hind femora 1.18 times as long as antennal segment III. Hind tibiae 0.51 times as long as body; setae on hind tibiae 0.85 times as long as middle diameter of the segment.

  • Abdomen: abdominal tergites I–VI smooth, spinal and lateral patches fused with a large brown patch on abdominal tergites IV–V, tergite VI with a brown stripe and lateral areas connected with the dorsal patch, tergites IIVII each with a pair of marginal patches, marginal patches on tergite VI slightly bigger than others, tergite VII with a faint brown band, and tergite VIII with a brown spinal band. Posterior areas of siphunculi, tergites VII and VIII with spinulous stripes. tergite VIII with 4 setae. Siphunculi cylindrical, brown, distinct imbricated, 0.15 times as long as body, 3.86 times as long as its basal width, 2.47 times as long as cauda. Cauda brown, coniform, distal part slightly acute, with 5 setae. Anal plate transverse oval, with 10 setae. Genital plate broad round with 10 posterior setae and 4 anterior setae. Wing veins normal. Others are similar to apterae.

  • Material exmined: China. Tibet: 6 apterous viviparous females and 1 alate viviparous female, Zham Town (E86.00°, N28.00°), altitude 2490 m, 28.vii.2005, on a kind of fern, by J.F. Wang (No. 16523); 2 apterous viviparous females, Zham Town (E86.00°, N28.00°), 8.viii.2010, on Dennstaedtia appendiculata, by Y.Wang (No. 25803).

  • Host plants: Dennstaedtia appendiculata (Dennstaedtiaceae), and unidentified ferns (Blackman and Eastop 2006).

  • Distribution: China (Tibet), India and Nepal.

  • Biology: Infesting loosely on the undersides of fronds of fern and without causing distinct injury (Figure 17I). The species have not been seen visited by ants.

  • Comment: The specimens from China slightly differ from the Indian specimens: (1) ocular tubercles small but visible (Indian specimens: eye without distinct triommatidia), (2) distal parts of femora with very sparse spinulose imbrication (Indian specimens: femora and tibiae smooth), (3) ultimate rostral segment with 4 accessory setae (Indian specimens: ultimate rostral segment with 2 accessory setae) (the information of Indian specimens from Basu 1969).

  • Shinjia Takahashi

  • Microtarsus Shinji, 1929: 43, nec Eyton, 1839. Type species: Microtarsus pteridifoliae Shinji, 1929.

  • Microtarsus Shinji, 1930: 188. Type species: Microtarsus pteridifoliae Shinji, 1930=Microtarsus pteridifoliae Shinji, 1929 Shinjia Takahashi, 1938: 6. Type species: Microtarsus pteridifoliae Shinji, 1929.

  • Comment: The genus is quite distinctive among the Macrosiphini in having reduced tarsi, with first tarsal chaetotaxy 1, 0, 0 and no claws. The genus is represented by a single species feeding on ferns.

  • Shinjia orientalis (Mordvilko) (Figure 14)

  • Microtarsus pterydifoliae Shinji, 1929: 44.

  • Shinjia pterydifoliae (Shinji): Takahashi, 1938: 6; Sorin, 1962: 21; Tao, 1963: 163; Paik, 1965: 53; Eastop, 1966: 475; Miyazaki, 1968: 21; 1971: 165; Raychaudhuri, 1980: 250.

  • Shinjia orientalis (Mordvilko): Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers, 1976: 395; Remaudière & Remaudière, 1997: 143; Blackman & Eastop, 2006: 1291.

  • Material examined: China. Zhejiang: 5 alate viviparous females, Hangzhou City (E120.15°, N30.27°), altitude 19 m, 20.v.1975, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Zhang (No. 6112); 2 alate viviparous females, Hangzhou City (E120.15°, N30.27°), altitude 19 m, 22.v.1975, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Zhang (No. 5787); 1 alate viviparous female and 3 apterous viviparous females, Fengyangshan Mountain (E109.33°, N27.08°), altitude 491 m, 26.vii.i2007, on a kind of fern, by Y. Fang (No. 20367); Gansu: 1 alate viviparous female and 12 apterous viviparous females, Yuzhong County (E104.18°, N350.82°), altitude 1975 m, 30.viii.1986, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Zhang, J.H. Li and T.S. Zhong (No. 8572); Sichuan: 2 alate viviparous females and 2 apterous viviparous females, Yajiang City (E101.15°, N30.03°), altitude 3073 m, 27.iv.1991, on a kind of fern, by T.S. Zhong and G.X. Zhang (No. 10001); Yunnan: 2 alate viviparous females and 6 apterous viviparous females, Dali Bai Autonomous Region (E100.35°, N25.6°), altitude 2119 m, 27.vi.2005, on a kind of fern, by J.F. Wang (No. 16317); Tibet: 3 apterous viviparous females, Zayü County (E97.47°, N28.63°), altitude 1520 m, 12.vii.2005, on a kind of fern, by J.F. Wang (No. 16423); 1 apterous viviparous female, Zayü County (E96.93°, N28.58°), altitude 2014 m, 25.viii.2005, on a kind of fern, by D. Zhang (No. 18342); 2 apterous viviparous females, Zayü County (E97.03°, N28.48°), altitude 1534 m, 26.viii.2005, on a kind of fern, by D. Zhang (No. 18356); 3 apterous viviparous females, Nyingchi Region (E94.47°, N29.55°), altitude 4087 m, 4.viii.2010, on Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, by Y. Wang (No. 25742); Hainan: 4 alate viviparous females and 4 apterous viviparous females, Ledong County (E108.09°, N18.08°), altitude 784 m, 2.v.2007, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Qiao and D. Zhang (No. 19569); Hunan: 3 alate viviparous females and 14 apterous viviparous females, Changsha City (E112.93°, N28.22°), altitude 29 m, x.1985, on a kind of fern, by G.X. Zhang (No. 8267); 9 apterous viviparous females, Zhangjiajie City (E110.5°, N29.01°), altitude 217 m, 12.x.1988, on a kind of fern, by T.S. Zhong and W.Y. Zhang (No. 8958); 7 alate viviparous females and 8 apterous vivip arous females, Yizhang County (E112.93°, N25.4°), altitude 248 m, 30.x. 1988, on a kind of fern, by T.S. Zhong (No. 9059); 3 apterous viviparous females, Guidong County (E113.07°, N25.10°), altitude 1143 m, 10.vii.2008, on Pteridium revolutum, by X.M. Su (No. 21760); 4 apterous viviparous females and 3 alate viviparous females, Guidong County (E113.08°, N25.10°), altitude 1399 m, 11.vii.2008, on Pteridium revolutum, by X.M. Su (Nos. 21784, 21788, 21789); 1 alate viviparous female, Guidong County (E113.08°, N26.07°), altitude 1525 m, 12.vii.2008, on Pteridium revolutum, by X.M. Su (No. 21796); 2 alate viviparous females and 5 apterous viviparous females, Yizhang County (E113.16°, N24.10°), altitude 1339 m, 17.viii.2008, on Pteridium revolutum, by X.M. Su (No. 21844); Guangdong: 2 alate viviparous females and 2 apterous viviparous females, Ruyuan County (E113.16°, N24.09°), altitude 1266 m, 20.vii.2008, on Pteridium revolutum, by X.M. Su (No. 21888); Guizhou: 3 apterous viviparous females, Leigong Mountain (E108.4°, N25.88°), altitude 760 m, 1.vi.2005, on a kind of fern, by Y. Fang (No. 16224); 1 apterous viviparous female, Suiyang County (E107.09°, N28.13°), altitude 1534 m, 7.vi.2010, on Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, by X.M. Su (No. 24559).

  • Host plants: Primary hosts: Viburnum cotinifolium (Chakrabarti and Banerjee 1993); V. dilatatum, V. erosum, V. japonicum (Miyazaki 1968, 1971; Higuchi and Miyazaki 1969; Moritsu 1983); V. sargentii (Pashchenko 1988); V. dentatum (Blackman and Eastop 2006). Secondary hosts: Artemisia princeps (Asteraceae) (Moritsu 1983); Athyrium macrocarpum, Athyrium sp. (Athyriaceae) (Raychaudhuri 1978, 1980); Dryopteris sp. (Aspidiaceae) (Ghosh 1974b; Ghosh and Raychaudhuri 1970; Raychaudhuri 1973); Lyonia ovalifolia (Ericaceae) (Chakrabarti and Sarkar, 2001); Polypodium sp. (Polypodiaceae) (Ghosh 1974b; Raychaudhuri 1973, 1980); Pteridium aquilinum (Hypolepidaceae) (Ghosh 1974b; Raychaudhuri 1973, 1980; Chakrabarti and Raychaudhuri 1975; Higuchi and Miyazaki 1969; Miyazaki 1968; Lee, Holman and Havelka 2002); Pteridium aquilinum japonicum (Hypolepidaceae) (Paik 1965); Pteridium aquilinum latiusculum (Hypolepidaceae) (Moritsu 1983; Paik and Choi 1969; Paik, Lee, Woo and Park 1969); Pteris sp. (Pteridaceae) (Raychaudhuri 1973; Chakrabarti and Sarkar 2001; Chakrabarti 1984, 1985; Chakrabarti, Saha and Mandal 1988); Pteris ovata (Pteridaceae) (Chakrabarti and Sarkar 2001; Chakrabarti and Raychaudhuri 1975). Pteridium revolutum is newly added to the list of host plants (Figure 17F).

  • Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Sichuan, Gansu, Yunnan, Tibet, Zhejiang), Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Russia (East Siberia), Philippines and Australia.

  • Biology: In spring, the species live on the young growth of Viburnum spp. and alter to secondary hosts of ferns in Japan (Sorin 1962). In Australia, it probably is anholocyclic on ferns (Blackman and Eastop 2006).

  • Vietaphis gen. nov

  • Etymology: The genus name consists in “vietus (Latin)” (= wrinkled) and “aphis (Latin)” (= aphid). The genus is named after its dorsum of body with C- or O-shaped wrinkles.

  • Type species : Vietaphis aliquanti sp. nov.

  • Gender: Feminine.

  • Diagnosis: Body small. Head smooth dorsally and sparse spinulose ventrally. Antennal tubercles developed, parallel or slightly diverging at the inner margins. Eyes with small and distinct ocular tubercles. Antennae 6-segmented, shorter than body length; antennal segment III in apterae without secondary rhinaria, but segments III-V in alatae present. Wing veins normal. First tarsal chaetotaxy: 3, 3, 3. Hind tibiae of nymphs without spinules. Dorsum of head near eyes with C-shaped wrinkles, dorsum of abdomen with C or Oshaped wrinkles in apterae; alatae with dark dorsal patch on abdomen. Marginal tubercles on abdomen absent. Siphunculi cylindrical with dense imbrications, no constricted under developed flange. Cauda coniform, distal half slightly constricted with 5 setae.

  • Comments: The new genus belongs to Macroshiphini (Aphidinae) in having spiracle on abdominal tergites I and II placed close together, lateral frontal tubercles pronounced, abdominal segments II–V or I and VII without marginal tubercles. Among these genera feeding on ferns in the world, the new genus is distinguished from its allied genera like Idiopterus Davis, Macromyzella Ghosh, Basu & Raychaudhuri, Macromyzus Takahashi, Micromyzella Eastop, Micromyzodium David and Micromyzus van der Goot, by the following characters, such as C- or O-shaped wrinkles on abdominal tergites, antennal segment III of apterae without secondary rhinaria, apex of siphunculi without reticulations, dorsal setae of body short and blunt, and alatae with normal wing veins. The new genus differs from other genera in morphology shown in the key.

    Relatively, the new genus is more closely related to Macromyzella Ghosh, Basu & Raychaudhuri by the shape of the body and siphunculi compared to other fern-feeding aphids, but differs from Macromyzella as follow: (1) dorsum of head with C-shaped wrinkles only near eyes, other areas smooth, abdominal tergites with C- or O-shaped wrinkles (Macromyzella: dorsum of head spinulose, abdominal tergites with reticulations), (2) antennae shorter than body, 0.50–0.80 times as long as body; processus terminalis short, 1.60–3.00 times as long as basal part of the segment (Macromyzella: antennae as long as or longer than body, 1.00–1.30 times as long as body; processus terminalis long, 4.60–5.80 times as long as basal part of the segment), (3) siphunculi without any reticulations under the flange, with imbrications (Macromyzella: siphunculi with 2–3 lines reticulations under flange, other parts with spinule short transverse stripes).

  • Biology: Usually, the species of the new genus loosely infest on the distal part of the undersides of fronds, and without causing distinct injury.

  • Vietaphis aliquantus sp. nov. (Table 3, Figures 1516)

  • Type locality: China (Guizhou (E107.1°, N28.2°, altitude 1470 m), Tibet (E88.9°, N27.48°, altitude 2700 m)).

  • Etymology: The species name consists in “aliquantus (Latin)” (= moderate). The species is named after its moderately developed antennal tubercles.

  • Apterous viviparous female. Body oval, yellowish green in life.

  • Mounted specimens: Body pale brown and broad oval (Figure 16a). Body 1.19–1.38 mm long, 0.73–0.82 mm wide. General measurements see Table 3.

  • Head: faint brown. Dorsum of head smooth except for C-shaped wrinkles near eyes dorsally, and sparse spinules and densely wrinkles ventrally (Figures 15a, 16b). Middle frontal tubercle indistinct, antennal tubercles moderate developed with imbrications, slightly diverging at inner sides, 2 pairs of antennal tubercles setae and a pair of median frontal setae. Dorsal setae of head extremely short and slightly blunt apices, 2 pairs of setae between antennae, arranged longitudinally; and 2 pairs of setae between eyes, arranged transversely. Cephalic setae about as long as dorsal setae, 0.0025 mm long, 0.11–0.15 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III. Ventral setae of head slightly longer than dorsal ones. Eyes big with small ocular tubercles. Antennae 6-segmented, inner margin of segment I, and segments II-VI dark brown and imbricated (Figures 15b, 16c). Antennae 0.51–0.63 times as long as body length, length in proportion of segments I–VI: 27–29, 23–24, 100, 47–50, 44–52, 41–45+77–82, segment IV almost as long as segment V, processus terminalis 1.61–2.27 times as long as base of the segment. Antennal setae similar to head dorsal setae, extremely short and blunt, segments I–VI each with 2–4, 3 or 4, 5or 6, 2–4, 2 or 3, 2+3 setae, respectively, apex of processus terminalis with 3 setae, length of setae on segment III 0.003–0.005 mm, 0.11–0.22 times as long as basal diameter of the segment. Primary rhinaria ciliated, secondary rhinaria absent. Apex of rostrum reaching beyond middle coxae. Ultimate rostral segment wedge-shaped, apex dark brown (Figures 15c, 16d), 1.40–1.82 times as long as its basal width, 1.04–1.19 times as long as second hind tarsal segment, with 6 primary setae and 4 accessory setae.

  • Thorax: thoracic nota with C-shaped wrinkles. Venter with spinulous transverse rows. Legs short, distal parts of tibiae and tarsi brown, coxae with spinules ventrally, distal parts of femora with sparse and distinct imbrications, and distal parts of hind tibiae with weakly spinules, others smooth. Hind femora 1.13–1.32 times as long as antennal segment III. Hind tibiae 0.31–0.38 times as long as body length, setae on hind tibiae short with acuminate to incrassate apices, 0.01–0.03 mm long, 0.50–0.83 times as long as middle diameter of the segment. First tarsal chaetotaxy: 3, 3, 3. Hind tibiae of nymph with spinules.

  • Abdomen: tergites I–VI with C- or O-shaped wrinkles, posterior areas of siphunculi, tergites VII and VIII with spinules. Venter with spinulous transverse rows. Spiracles nephroid, spiracular plates pale brown and slightly prominent. Setae on tergites I–VII similar to ones on head and thorax, tergite VIII with 4 long setae. Marginal setae on tergite Ι; 0.0025 mm long, and spinal setae on tergite VIII 0.017–0.027mm long, 0.11–0.14 times and 0.88–1.38 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III, respectively. Siphunculi cylindrical, brown at apices, widest at base, slightly S-shaped, distinct imbricated and with a row of striate under developed flange (Figures 15d, 16e), 0.18–0.22 times as long as body, 2.79–3.75 times as long as its basal width, 2.25–2.40 times as long as cauda. Cauda pale brown, coniform, distal half slightly constricted (Figures 15e, 16f), 1.43–1.50 times as long as its basal width, with 5 setae. Anal plate pale brown, transverse oval, with 8–10 setae. Genital plate pale brown, broad round with 8–10 short posterior setae and 2 anterior setae.

  • Alate viviparous female (Figure 16g). Mounted specimens: Body pale brown. Body 1.33–1.57 mm long, 0.60–0.61 mm wide. For general measurements see Table 3.

  • Head: brown and smooth with sparse wrinkles dorsally and ventrally. Middle frontal tubercle indistinct, antennal tubercles low, slightly diverging at inner sides, with 2 pairs of antennal tubercles setae and a pair of median frontal setae. Dorsal setae of head short and acute, cephalic setae 0.007–0.017 mm long, 0.85–1.00 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III. Ventral setae similar to dorsal ones. Eyes large, with small ocular tubercles. Antennae 6-segmented, brown, inner margin of segments I and II sparse imbricated, segments III-VI imbricated (Figures 15f, 15g, 15h). Antennae 0.96–1.00 times as long as body, segment III slightly constricted, length in proportion of segments I–VI: 12–15, 11–14, 100, 48–51, 45–48, 33+68–76; processus terminalis 2.05–2.27 times as long as base of the segment. Primary rhinaria ciliated, segment III with 33–37 large non-protuberant circular secondary rhinaria, segment IV with 13 ones, segment V with 2–6 ones. Length of setae on segment III 0.007 mm, 0.38–0.43 times as long as basal diameter of the segment. Rostrum reaching middle coxae, ultimate rostral segment slender, wedgeshaped, apex dark brown, 2.55–3.25 times as long as its basal width, 1.89–2.00 times as long as second hind tarsal segments, with 6 primary setae and 4 accessory setae.

  • Thorax: legs long, brown except for basal parts of femora pale, coxae with spinules ventrally, distal parts of femora imbricated, and hind tibiae with very weakly spinules, others smooth. Hind femora 0.96–1.01 times as long as antennal segment III. Hind tibiae 0.56–0.63 times as long as body, setae on hind tibiae 0.012–0.020 mm long, 0.50–0.80 times as long as middle diameter of the segment. First tarsal chaetotaxy: 3, 3, 3.

  • Abdomen: tergites smooth. Abdominal tergites I and II with spinal and lateral sclerites fused into a broad brown stripe, tergites III–VI with a big brown patch, tergites II–VII each with a pair of marginal sclerites, marginal sclerites on tergites VI slightly bigger than others, marginal sclerites on tergites II–VII, and basal areas of each a pair of spinal setae on tergites III, IV and VI ornamented by spinules. Posterior areas of siphunculi, tergites VII and VIII with spinulose stripes. Dorsal setae slightly longer than ones of apterae. Marginal setae on tergite Ι; 0.010 mm long, and tergite VIII with 4 long setae, spinal setae 0.03–0.04 mm long, 0.50–0.57 times and 1.25–2.43 times as long as basal diameter of antennal segment III, respectively. Siphunculi cylindrical, brown, widest at base, distinct imbricated and with a row of striate under developed flange (Figure 15i), 0.21–0.23 times as long as body, 4.00–4.96 times as long as its basal width, 3.44–3.68 times as long as cauda. Cauda pale brown, coniform, distal half slightly constricted, 1.20–1.48 times its basal width, with 5 setae. Anal plate transverse oval, brown, with 8 or 9 setae. Genital plate broad round and brown, with 12 short posterior setae and 2 anterior setae. Wing veins normal. Others are similar to apterae.

  • Holotype: China. Guizhou: apterous viviparous female, Zunyi City (E107.1°, N28.2°), altitude 1470 m, 3.vi.2010, on Plagiogyria japonica, by X.M. Su (No. 24516).

  • Paratypes: China. Guizhou: 1 alate viviparous female, Zunyi City, same data as holotype (No. 24510); 2 apterous viviparous females, 2 alate viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.22°, N28.22°), altitude 854 m, 4.vi.2010, on Plagiogyria japonica, by X.M. Su (No. 24529); 3 apterous viviparous females, Zunyi City (E107.09°, N28.13°), altitude 1534 m, 5.vi.2010, on Plagiogyria japonica, by X.M. Su (No. 24547); Tibet: 7 apterous viviparous females, 2 apterous nymphs, Yadong County (E88.9°, N27.48°), altitude 2700 m, 23.vii.2005, on a kind of fern, by J.F. Wang (No. 16492).

  • Host plant: Plagiogyria japonica (Plagiogyriaceae).

  • Distribution: China (Guizhou, Tibet).

  • Biology: The species infests Plagiogyria japonica, and usually colonizes loosely the distal part of the undersides of fronds (Figure 17H), and doesn't cause any deformations to the hosts. The species have not been seen attended by ants.

  • Comment: The new species is similar to the Macromyzella polypodicola (Takahashi 1921), but differs from the latteras follows: (1) body dorsum with C-, or O-shaped wrinkles (Macromyzella polypodicola: body dorsum with reticulations), (2) antennae shorter than body, 0.51–0.63 times as long as body (Macromyzella polypodicola: antennae as long as or longer than body, 1.03–1.22 times as long as body), (3) siphunculi brown at apices and without reticulations under flange (Macromyzella polypodicola: siphunculi pale, with 4 or 5 rows of reticulations under the flange).

  • Figure 1.

    Apterous viviparous female: a. hind tibia and tarsus of Shinjia pteridifoliae. b. dorsal capitate or flabellate setae of body of Idiopterus nephrelepidis. c. siphunculus of Macromyzus woodwardiae. d. body dorsal recticulations of Macromyzella polypodicola. e. pairs of spinal sclerites on abdominal tergites of Macromyzus maculatus. f. body dorsum with hairbearing sclerites of Macromyzus spinosus (big spinules shown). g. body dorsum with hair-bearing sclerites of Macromyzus woodwardiae. h. thick and long dorsal setae of body of Micromyzodium polypodii. i. C- or Oshaped wrinkles on abdominal tergites of Myzus filicis. j. siphunculus of Amphorophora ampullate bengalensis. k. antennal segment III of Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f01_01.jpg

    Figure 2.

    Apterous viviparous female of Amphorophora ampullata bengalensis. Scale bar = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f02_01.jpg

    Figure 3.

    Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov., (a–h) apterous viviparous female: a. dorsal (left) and ventral (right) view of head. b–c. antennal segments I–III. d. ultimate rostral segment. e. mesosternal furca. f. hind tarsus (spinules on first tarsal segment shown). g. siphunculus (different degree pigmented patches shown). h. cauda. i–j. alate viviparous female: i. antennal segments I–II and basal part of segment III. j. rest part of antennal segment III. Scale bar: 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f03_01.jpg

    Figure 4.

    Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov . (a–g) apterous viviparous female: a. dorsal view of body. b. dorsal view of head. c. antennal segments I–III. d. ultimate rostral segment. e. end of the hind tibia and tarsus (spinules on first tarsal segment shown). f. siphunculus. g. cauda. h. dorsal view of body of alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f04_01.jpg

    Figure 5.

    Apterous viviparous female of Idiopterus nephrelepidis. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f05_01.jpg

    Figure 6.

    Macromyzella polypodicola. a. apterous viviparous female. b. alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f06_01.jpg

    Figure 7.

    Apterous viviparous female of Macromyzus spinosus. Scale bar = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f07_01.jpg

    Figure 8.

    Macromyzus woodwardiae. a. apterous viviparous female. b. alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f08_01.jpg

    Figure 9.

    Macromyzus maculatus. a. apterous viviparous female. b. alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f09_01.jpg

    Figure 10.

    Micromyzodium polypodii. a. apterous viviparous female. b. alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f10_01.jpg

    Figure 11.

    Apterous viviparous female of Micromyzus kaoti. Scale bar = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f11_01.jpg

    Figure 12.

    Myzus filicis. (a–f): apterous viviparous female: a. dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views of head. b. antennal segments I–V. c. antennal segment VI. d. ultimate rostral segment. e. siphunculus. f. cauda. (g–h). alate viviparous female: g. antennal segments I–III. h. antennal segments IV–VI. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f12_01.jpg

    Figure 13.

    Myzus filicis. (a–f): apterous viviparous female: a. dorsal view of body. b. dorsal view of head. c. ultimate rostral segment. d. abdominal tergites IV–VIII (C-, or O-shaped wrinkles on dorsum of body shown). e. siphunculus. f. cauda. g. dorsal view of body of apterous nymph. h. dorsal view of body of alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f13_01.jpg

    Figure 14.

    Shinjia orientalis. a. apterous viviparous female. b. alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f14_01.jpg

    Figure 15.

    Vietaphis aliquantus sp. nov. (a–e) apterous viviparous female: a. dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views of head. b. antennal segments I–VI. c. ultimate rostral segment. d. siphunculus. e. cauda. (f–i) alate viviparous female: f. antennal segments I–III. g. antennal segments IV–V. h. antennal segment VI. i. siphunculus. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f15_01.jpg

    Figure 16.

    Vietaphis aliquantus sp. nov. (a–f) apterous viviparous female: a. dorsal view of body. b. dorsal view of head. c. antennal segments I–VI. d. ultimate rostral segment. e. siphunculus. f. cauda. g. dorsal view of body of alate viviparous female. Scale bars = 0.10 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f16_01.jpg

    Figure 17.

    The ecological photos in the field. A. alate nymph of Amphorophora ampullate bengalensis. B. colonies of Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov . C. colonies of Idiopterus nephrelepidis. D. colonies of Macromyzella polypodicola. E. colonies of Macromyzus maculatus. F. small colonies of Shinjia orientalis. G. colonies of Macromyzus woodwardiae. H. colonies of Vietaphis aliquantus sp. nov. I. colonies of Myzus filicis.High quality figures are available online.

    f17_01.jpg

    Table 1.

    Biometric data (mean, range) of Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp. nov. (in mm).

    t01_01.gif

    Table 2.

    Biometric data (mean, range) of Myzus filicis Basu (in mm).

    t02_01.gif

    Table 3.

    Biometric data (mean, range) of Vietaphis aliquantus sp. nov. (in mm).

    t03_01.gif

    Acknowledgements

    We are deeply indebted to L.Q. Li and X.C. Zhang from the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for their identification of the host plants, to C.P. Liu and F.D. Yang for making slides, and to all collectors of specimens. The work was supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scientists (No. 31025024), National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Nos. 31272348, 31372237), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST Grant No. 2011FY120200), Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KSCX2-EW-Z-8), and National Science Fund for Fostering Talents in Basic Research (No. J1210002).

    References

    1.

    AN. Basu 1969. Four new genera and nine new species of Aphids (Homoptera) from West Bengal, India. Orient. Insects 3(2): 169–186. Google Scholar

    2.

    C. Börner 1952. Europae centralis Aphides. Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges., Beiheft. 3 (I–II) (Weimar). Google Scholar

    3.

    GB. Buckton 1876. Monograph of the British Aphides I. Ray Society. Google Scholar

    4.

    M. Carver 1965. Two new species of Micromyzus van der Goot, 1917 (Homoptera: Aphididae). Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London (B) , 34 (9–10): 113–116. Google Scholar

    5.

    S. Chakrabarti 1984. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) of Garhwal Himalaya and their parasites and predators. Final Report, July 1, 1981–October 31, 1984. Univ. Kalyani. Google Scholar

    6.

    S. Chakrabarti 1985. Biosystematics of gall aphids (Homoptera) and morphology of aphid galls. Final Report, Univ. Kalyani. Google Scholar

    7.

    S Chakrabarti , PK. Banerjee 1993. Hostalternation in aphids from western and northwest Himalaya, India. In: P Kindlmann , AFG Dixon , Editors. Critical issues in aphid biology. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Aphids. pp. 43–53. Ceské Budějovice. Google Scholar

    8.

    S Chakrabrti , DN. Raychaudhuri 1975. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Sundardhunga Valley, Kumaon Himalaya, India. Orient. Insects 9: 195–211. Google Scholar

    9.

    S Chakrabarti , S Saha , AK. Mandal 1988. Longisiphoniella subterranea gen. et sp. nov. and hitherto unknown aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Garhwal range of western Himalaya. Proc. Zool. Soc. 37: 35–44. Google Scholar

    10.

    S Chakrabarti , A. Sarkar 2001. A supplement to the food-plant catalogue of Indian Aphididae (Homoptera). J. Aphidol. 15: 9–62. Google Scholar

    11.

    SK. David 1958. A new genus and three new species of aphids from India. Indian J. Ent. New Delhi 20: 175–188. Google Scholar

    12.

    JJ. Davis 1909. Studies on Aphididae II. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2: 30–42. Google Scholar

    13.

    G. del Guercio 1894. Frammenti di osservazioni sulla storia naturale di un Myzus trovato sull Elaeagnus e sulla distinzione delle forme di Myzus ribis L. Descritte fin qúi. Nat Sicil., 13: 189–199. Google Scholar

    14.

    G. del Guercio 1911. Intorno a due generi di afidi americani. Redia 7: 462–464. Google Scholar

    15.

    VF. Eastop 1953. A list of aphids collected in Guernsey, Herm and Sark. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 89: 154–155. Google Scholar

    16.

    VF. Eastop 1955. Two new species and two new sub-genera of Micromyzus van der Goot, 1917 (Hemiptera, Aphididae) from East Africa. Ent. Mon. Mag. 91: 203–206. Google Scholar

    17.

    VF. Eastop 1966. A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea (Homoptera). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 399–592. Google Scholar

    18.

    VF Eastop , Ris Lambers D. Hille 1976. A survey of the world's Aphids. Dr. W. Junk. Google Scholar

    19.

    JC. Fabricius 1775. Systema entomologiae: sistens insectorvm classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibvs, observationibvs. Text Flensbvrgi et Lipsiae: Officina Libraria Kortii. Google Scholar

    20.

    DT. Fullaway 1910. Synopsis of Hawaiian Aphidae. Annu. Rep. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta. 1909: 20–46. Google Scholar

    21.

    AK. Ghosh 1974a. Fern infesting aphids (Insecta: Homoptera) in India. Ind. J. Horticult. 31: 104–109. Google Scholar

    22.

    AK. Ghosh 1974b. A list of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from India and adjacent countries. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 71: 201–220. Google Scholar

    23.

    AK. Ghosh 1977. Additions to the list of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from India and adjacent countries. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 74: 29–44. Google Scholar

    24.

    AK Ghosh , MR Ghosh , DN. Raychaudhuri 1970. Studies on the aphids (Hem., Hom., Aphididae) from eastern India. II. Some new species and new records from north Bengal. Orient. Insects 4: 193–203. Google Scholar

    25.

    AK Ghosh , DN. Raychaudhuri 1970. New records of aphids (Hem., Hom., Aphididae) from India. Sci. Cult. 36: 48–49. Google Scholar

    26.

    LK. Ghosh 1964. Additions to the aphid fauna of Bihar with the first record of an aphid sexuale (Homoptera: Aphididdae). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 73: 416–418. Google Scholar

    27.

    MR Ghosh , RC Basu , DN. Raychaudhuri 1977. Studies on the aphids from eastern India. XXXV. Three new genera and four new species. Orient. Insects 11: 579–586. Google Scholar

    28.

    OE. Heie 1994. The Aphidoidea (Hemiptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. V (Family Aphididae: Part 2 of tribe Macrosiphini of subfamily Aphidinae). Leiden. Google Scholar

    29.

    H Higuchi , M. Miyazaki 1969. A tentative catalogue of host plants of Aphidoidea in Japan. Ins. Matsum. 5: 1–66. Google Scholar

    30.

    D Hille Ris Lambers , AN. Basu 1966. Some new of little known genera, subgenera, species and subspecies of Aphididae from India (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomol. Ber. 26: 12–20 and 27–36. Google Scholar

    31.

    D Hille Ris Lambers , JP. Rogerson 1946. A new British aphid from Prunus padus L., Myzus padellus sp.n.. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (B) 15(9–10): 101–105. Google Scholar

    32.

    D. Hille Ris Lambers 1949. Contribution to a monograph of the Aphididae of Europe. IV. Temminckia 8: 182–329. Google Scholar

    33.

    SH. Hodjat 1998. In: G Lampel , Editor. A list of aphids and their host plants in Iran. Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz. Google Scholar

    34.

    J. Holman 1974. Los afidos de Cuba. Instituto del Libro, La Habana. Google Scholar

    35.

    J. Holman 2009. Host Plant Catalog of Aphids: Palaearctic Region. Springer. Google Scholar

    36.

    JH. Kaltenbach 1843. Monographie der Familien der Pflanzenläuse (Phytophthieres). Aachen. Google Scholar

    37.

    F Leclant , G. Remaudière 1974. Un Acyrthosiphon nouveau vivant sur Glaucium (Hom., Aphididae). Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N.S.) 10: 875–883. Google Scholar

    38.

    S. Lee 2002. New record of Macromyzus woodwardiae (Sternorhyncha: Aphididae) on Cyrtomium falcatum from Korea. Kor. J. Syst. Zool. 18(1): 127–133. Google Scholar

    39.

    SH Lee , J Holman , J. Havelka 2002. Illustrated Catalogue of Aphididae in the Korean Peninsula. Part I, Subfamily Aphidinae (Hemiptera: Sternorhyncha). Insects Korea 9: 329. Google Scholar

    40.

    S Lee , H. Kim 2006. A fern aphid, Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee, new genus and new species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Cyrtomium falcatum (Dryopteridaceae) in basalt rock caves. P. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 108(3): 493–501. Google Scholar

    41.

    I. Iglisch 1963. Ein Fund von Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Davis, 1909) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Saintpaulia ionantha (Usambaraveilchen) und Nachweis weiterer neuer mono- und dicotyler Wirtspflanzen für diese. Art. Z. Angew. Zool. 50: 485–502. Google Scholar

    42.

    S. Matsumura 1918. New Aphididae of Japan. Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 7(1): 1–22. Google Scholar

    43.

    M. Miyazaki 1968. A revision of the fern Aphids of Japan with descriptions of three new species (Homoptera: Aphididae). Ins. Matsum. 31(3): 13–24. Google Scholar

    44.

    M. Miyazaki 1971. A revision of the tribe Macrosiphini of Japan (Homoptera: Aphididae, Aphidinae). Ins. Matsum. 34: 1–247. Google Scholar

    45.

    M. Miyazaki 1972. Discovery of the fundatrix of Macromyzus woodwardiae (Takahashi) (Homoptera: Aphididae), with biological notes. Kontyû 40(1): 36–39. Google Scholar

    46.

    AK. Mordvilko 1929. Food plant catalogue of the Aphididae of U.S.S.R. Works. Appl. Entomol. 14: 1–101. Google Scholar

    47.

    M. Moritsu 1948. The genus Megoura Buckton in Japan, with a note on the variation of the external characters in Megoura viciae japonica (Matsumura). Mushi 18(13): 83–88. Google Scholar

    48.

    M. Moritsu 1949. Descriptions of two new or a little known species of root-aphids from Japan. Ins. Matsum. 17: 11–16. Google Scholar

    49.

    M. Moritsu 1952. The fern aphids in Japan. Bull. Fac. Agr. Yamaguti Univ. 2: 26–28. Google Scholar

    50.

    M. Moritsu 1983. Aphids of Japan in Colors. Zenkoku-Noson-Kyokai. Google Scholar

    51.

    JM Nieto Nafría , TE Díaz González , MP. Mier Durante 1984. Catálogo de los pulgones (Homoptera, Aphidoidea) de España y de sus plantas hospedadoras. Universidad de León, León. Google Scholar

    52.

    D. Noordam 2004. Aphids of Java. Part V: Aphidini (Homoptera: Aphididae). Zool. Verh. 346: 7–83. Google Scholar

    53.

    WH. Paik 1965. Aphids of Korea. Seoul National University. Google Scholar

    54.

    WH. Paik 1972. Aphidoidea. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of Korea, Volume 13, Insecta. 5. Samwha Publishing Co. Google Scholar

    55.

    WH Paik , SS. Choi 1969. Host plant catalogue of the Korean aphids. Aphid Lab. Bull. 1: 23–50. Google Scholar

    56.

    WH Paik , DE Lee , KS Woo , JD. Park 1969. Aphid fauna of Cheju Island (Quelpart Island). Aphid Lab. Bull. 1: 13–22. Google Scholar

    57.

    NF. Pashchenko 1988. Suborder Aphidinea, aphids. In: PA Lehr , Editor. Keys to insects of the Far East of the USSR , volume 2. pp. 546–686. Nauka. Google Scholar

    58.

    G. Passerini 1860. Gli Afidi con un prospetto dei generi ed alcune specie nuove Italiane. Tipografia Carmigani. Google Scholar

    59.

    GX Qiao , LY. Jiang 2005. One new record genus and four new record species of Chinese Aphididae (Homoptera, Aphidoidea). Acta Zootax. Sin. 30(3): 584–589. Google Scholar

    60.

    GX Qiao , LY Jiang , JH. Martin 2006. Aulacophoroides (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae), a generic account, description of a new species from Hong Kong (China) and a key to species. Zootaxa 1299: 57–68. Google Scholar

    61.

    DN. Raychaudhuri 1973. Taxonomy of the aphids of the eastern Himalayas. Techn. Report (August 1, 1968–December 31, 1973). University of Calcutta, Calcutta. Google Scholar

    62.

    DN. Raychaudhuri 1980. Aphids of North-East India and Bhutan. The Zoological Society. Google Scholar

    63.

    G Remaudière , M. Remaudière 1997. Catalogue des Aphididae du Monde. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Google Scholar

    64.

    G Remaudière , A Autrique , VF Eastop , P Stary , G. Aymonin 1985. Contribution to the ecology of African aphids. Food & Agriculture Org. Google Scholar

    65.

    AG. Robinson 1966. Review of the fern aphids in North America with descriptions of a new apecies and a new genus. Can. Ent. 98: 1252–1259. Google Scholar

    66.

    MV. Shaw 1964. A basic list of the Scottish Aphididae. Trans. Soc. Br. Entomol. 16: 49–92. Google Scholar

    67.

    O. Shinji 1929. Four new genera of Aphididae from Morioka, Japan. Lansania 1(3): 39–48. Google Scholar

    68.

    O. Shinji 1930. Notes on four genera of Aphididae. Rept. Japan Assoc. Advance Sci. 5: 187–191. Google Scholar

    69.

    O. Shinji 1933. Three new species of Amphorophora. Zool. Mag. 45 (538): 347–351. Google Scholar

    70.

    O. Shinji 1938. A new Myzus from northeastern Japan. Zool. Mag. 50(2): 108–110. Google Scholar

    71.

    O. Shinji 1941. Monograph of Japanese Aphididae. Shinkyo Sha Shoin. Google Scholar

    72.

    M. Sorin 1962. Notes on the aphid, Shinjia pteridifoliae Shinji. Kontyû 30(1): 21–26. Google Scholar

    73.

    XM Su , GX. Qiao 2010. Macromyzus Takahashi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a generic account, description of one new species, and keys to species. Zootaxa 2619: 1–13. Google Scholar

    74.

    AW. Steffan 1962. Ein Freilandfund und neue Wirtspflanzen von Idiopterus nephrelepidis D. In Jugoslawien (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Z. Angew. Entomol. 50: 403–407. Google Scholar

    75.

    R. Takahashi 1921. Aphididae of Formosa. Part I. Govt. Res. Inst. Taihoku Formosa 20: 1–97. Google Scholar

    76.

    R. Takahashi 1923. Aphididae of Formosa. Part 2. Dep. Agr. Govt. Res. Inst. Formosa Rep. 4: 1–173. Google Scholar

    77.

    R. Takahashi 1925a. Food plant catalogue of the Formosan Aphididae. Dep. Agr. Govt. Res. Inst. Formosa Rep. 16: 59–63. Google Scholar

    78.

    R. Takahashi 1925b. Aphididae of Formosa. IV. Govt. Res. Inst. Taihoku Formosa 16: 1–65. Google Scholar

    79.

    R. Takahashi 1931. Aphididae of Formosa. Part. 6. Dep. Agr. Govt. Res. Inst. Formosa Rep. 53: 1–127. Google Scholar

    80.

    R. Takahashi 1938. List of the aphid genera proposed in recent years (Hemiptera). Tenthredo 2(1): 1–18. Google Scholar

    81.

    R. Takahashi 1960. Four new genera of Aphididae from Japan (Aphididae: Homoptera). Kontyû 28(4): 223–229. Google Scholar

    82.

    R. Takahashi 1963. Eumyzus, Paramyzus, Macromyzus, Sitomyzus, Micromyzus and Micromyzodium of Japan (Homoptera: Aphididae). Ins. Matsum. 26(1): 55–63. Google Scholar

    83.

    CC. Tao 1963. Revision of Chinese Macrosiphinae (Aphididae: Homoptera). Plant Prot. Bull. Taiwan 5(3): 162–205. (In Chinese) Google Scholar

    84.

    CC. Tao 1964. Some new and unrecorded aphids from Ryukyu Islands. Q. J. Taiwan Mus. 17: 227–236. Google Scholar

    85.

    CC. Tao 1967. Aphid fauna of China. Sci. Yearbook Taiwan Mus. 10: 1–28. Google Scholar

    86.

    CC. Tao 1990. Aphid Fauna of Taiwan. Taiwan Museum Press. Google Scholar

    87.

    CC. Tao 1999. List of Aphidoidea (Homoptera) of China. Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute. Google Scholar

    88.

    FV. Theobald 1918. African Aphididae. Part III. Bull. Ent. Res., London 8: 273–294. Google Scholar

    89.

    P. van der Goot 1913. Zur Systematik der Aphiden. Tijdschr. Ent. 56: 69–155. Google Scholar

    90.

    P. van der Goot 1915. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der holländischen Blattläuse. Tjeenk Willink & Zoon and R. Friedländer & Sohn. Google Scholar

    91.

    P. van der Goot 1917. A contribution to the knowledge of the aphids of Java. Contrib. Faune Indes Neérl. 1(3): 1–301. Google Scholar

    92.

    AO. Werder 1931. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Aphiden-fauna von Basel und Umgebung. Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel. 42: 1–98. Google Scholar
    This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.
    Xiao-Mei Su, Li-Yun Jiang, and Ge-Xia Qiao "The Fern-Feeder Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China: A Generic Account, Descriptions of One New Genus, One New Species, One New Subspecies, and Keys," Journal of Insect Science 14(23), 1-36, (1 February 2014). https://doi.org/10.1673/031.014.23
    Received: 20 May 2012; Accepted: 8 April 2013; Published: 1 February 2014
    JOURNAL ARTICLE
    36 PAGES


    Share
    SHARE
    RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
    Get copyright permission
    Back to Top