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1 June 2014 Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with Description of One New Species from Pakistan
Muhammad Hamid Bashir, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Ashfaq, Shaukat Ali, Muhammad Kamran, Sabyan Faris Honey
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Abstract

The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n., is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given.

Introduction

Cunaxidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) are important predatory mites. They have been reported to feed on other small arthropods, including harmful mites and soft bodied insects (Nesbsitt 1946; Lord 1949; Schruft 1971; Kuznetzov and Sizova 1978; Youssef et al. 1980; Smiley 1992) and nematodes (Walter and Kaplan 1991). Cunaxidae occupy diverse habitats and have been reported from all parts of the world (Walter and Kaplan 1991; Swift 1996; Walter 1999; Arbabi et al. 2002; Tagore and Putatunda 2003; de-Oliveira and Daemon 2003; Tagore and Putatunda 2003; Sionti 2003; Sergeyenko 2005, 2006, 2009, 2011; Mejia-Recamier and Palacios-Vargas 2007; Corpuz-Raros 2007; Kaluz 2009; Den Heyer 2011; Skvarla et al. 2011; Skvarla and Dowling 2012).

Coleoscirinae was erected by Den Heyer (1979). It encompasses two tribes (Coleoscirini and Neoscirulini) and six genera (Neoscirula Den Heyer, Pseudobonzia Smiley, Coleobonzia Den Heyer & Castro, Coleoscirus Berlese, Orangescirula Bu & Li, and Scutascirus Den Heyer). Ninety-one species have thus far been described in this subfamily (Den Heyer 2011). Neoscirula, which Smiley (1992) transferred to Bonzinae based on characteristics of the hypostomal setae, has recently been placed back into Coleoscirinae (Den Heyer 2011).

Berlese (1916) erected the genus Coleoscirus and included two species, C. halacaroides and C. corniculatus, in it. Den Heyer (1978) synonymized Coleoscirus corniculatus with Scirus curtipalpis. Berlese (1916) designated Coleoscirus halacaroides as the type species of genus Coleoscirus, in spite of an earlier described species, Coleoscirus curtipalpis (Berlese 1888). Ewing (1917) described a new species Scirus (= Coleoscirus) simplex from the U.S.A.

Thor and Willmann (1941) redescribed and provided drawings of Coleoscirus simplex, C. brevicornis, C. curtipalpis, C. halacaroides, and C. curtipalpis (as C. corniculatus). Baker and Hoffmann (1948) redescribed and provided the drawings of C. curtipalpis, C. brevicornis, and C. simplex. They also described and gave drawings of a new species, Cunaxa mexicana (= Coleoscirus mexicanus Baker & Hoffmann, 1948) from Mexico and the U.S.A.

Smiley (1975) provided a new genus name, Pseudocunaxa, for species related to and including Coleoscirus simplex.. This new genus name is a synonym of Coleoscirus Berlese, 1916 (Den Heyer 1980a). Den Heyer (1979) described two new species, C. tuberculatus and C. magdalenae, from Africa and gave a key for these two species. Den Heyer (1980a) described three new species, Coleoscirus coatesi, C. buartus, and C. breslauensis, and prepared a comprehensive key. Den Heyer (1980b) included the genus Coleoscirus in the subfamily Coleoscirinae, in his new tribe Coleoscirini, along with the genus Scutascirus. He mentioned the genus Pseudocunaxa Smiley, 1975 as synonym of genus Coleoscirus. Tseng (1980) erected a new genus, Lapicunaxa, with Lapicunaxa horidula as its type species.

Den Heyer (1979) synonymized Pseudocunaxa with Coleoscirus. Chaudhri and Akbar (1985) and Inayatullah and Shahid (1993) apparently missed that publication or did not agree with it and described species in the genus Pseudocunaxa. In 1992, Smiley gave the new classification system for Cunaxidae family, as he synonymized Pseudocunaxa and Lapicunaxa with Coleoscirus and described 11 species of this genus, including the species of Chaudhri and Akbar (1985). Later, Muhammad and Chaudhri (1992a, b) and Bashir et al. (2006, 2008) contributed to the fauna of this genus from Pakistan.

The genus Pseudobonzia was erected by Smiley (1975). He designated Cunaxa reticulata Heryford as its type species. Den Heyer (1977) described six new species from the Ethiopian region and placed this genus in the subfamily Coleoscirinae (Den Heyer 1980b). Later, Den Heyer (1980a), Luxton (1982), Liang (1984), Sepasgosarian (1984), Chaudhri and Akbar (1985), Michocka (1987), Smiley (1992), and Bashir et al. (2008) made significant contributions to the fauna of this genus worldwide.

The genus Scutascirus was erected by Den Heyer (1976). He designated Scutascirus polyscutosus as its type species. Den Heyer (1979, 1980a), Sepasgosarian (1984), Chaudhri and Akbar (1985), Smiley (1992), and Lin et al. (2001) have contributed to the knowledge of Cunaxidae.

Materials and Methods

Sieve collection was used for field collecting. The plant parts, such as leaves, twigs, and inflorescences, were beaten on a sieve held over a white piece of paper. Cunaxids were sorted with the help of a magnifying lens and stored in vials containing 70% alcohol and few drops of glycerin. Materials such as soil and leaf debris that could not be processed in the field were processed in Berlese funnels for at least 24 hours. They were subsequently sorted under a binocular microscope and preserved in 70% ethanol. The specimens were mounted permanently on glass slides using Hoyer's medium and identified using a phase contrast microscope. Illustrations were prepared by using an ocular grid. The identification of the species was done with the help of existing keys and literature. The setal nomenclature of Kethley (1990) has been adopted. All the measurements (in μm) and ranges are given in the description. The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript:

  • asl: attenuate solenidion

  • bsl: blunt ended solenidion

  • sts: simple tactile setae

  • T: trichobothrium

  • Peo: cunaxid peg organ on tarsi I

Nomenclature

This publication and the nomenclature it contains have been registered in Zoobank. The LSID number is:

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:13C6436F-7557-439D-B4A1-A7C8F07D3530

It can be found online by inserting the LSID number after  www.zoobank.org/

Results and Discussion

Key to genera of the subfamily Coleoscirinae (Smiley, 1992)

1) Ventral idiosoma with sub triangular plate adjacent to ventrolateral coxal and genital plates Scutascirus Den Heyer

- Ventral idiosoma without sub triangular plate adjacent to ventrolateral coxal and genital plates 2

2) Female with sternal and ventrolateral plates. Dorsum with a single shield extending from propodosoma into hysterosomal region Coleoscirus

Berlese - Female without sternal and ventrolateral plates. Dorsum with a single shield confined to propodosomal region Pseudobonzia Smiley

Genus Scutascirus

Key to species of the genus Scutascirus known from Pakistan

1) Gnathosoma with striations at base, palp telofemur with 1 seta tactus Chaudhri & Akbar

2) Gnathosoma with reticulations at base, palp telofemur with 1 seta and 1 spine pigrus Chaudhri & Akbar

Scutascirus pigrus Chaudhri & Akbar

Scutascirus pigrus Chaudhri & Akbar, 1985: 231

Known distribution: Pakistan: Faisalabad

Known source: Rawan (Vigna sinensis)

Scutascirus tactus Chaudhri & Akbar

Scutascirus tactus Chaudhri & Akbar, 1985: 229

Known distribution: Pakistan: Gujranwala

Known source: Jute (Corchorus capsularis)

Genus Coleoscirus

Key to species of the genus Coleoscirus known from Pakistan

1) Dorsal shield with 4 pairs of setae in hysterosomal region 2

- Dorsal shield with more than 4 pairs of setae in hysterosomal region 4

2) Palp tibiotarsus with large spur on inner medial surface; genital shield with 4 pairs of simple setae trudus Bashir & Afzal

- Palp tibiotarsus with small tubercle on inner medial surface; genital shield with 3 pairs of simple setae 3

3) Genu IV with 5 setae; tibia I with 7 Setae carex (Inayatullah & Shahid)

- Genu IV with 6 setae; tibia I with 6 Setae mardi (Inayatullah & Shahid)

4) Dorsal shield with 6 pairs of simple setae in hysterosomal region 5

- Dorsal shield with 5 pairs of simple setae in hysterosomal region 7

5) Venter with 6 pairs of simple setae between lateral plates and distal part of body in addition to setae of anal and genital region raviensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq & Khan

- Venter with less than 6 pairs of simple setae between lateral plates and distal part of body in addition to setae of anal and genital region 6

6) Leg genu IV with 6 setae; venter with 4 pairs of simple setae between lateral plates and genital region tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq & Khan

- Leg genu IV with 7 setae; Venter with 5 pairs of simple setae between lateral plates and genital region carnus Muhammad & Chaudhri

7) Coxa II with 3 setae 8

- Coxa II with 2 setae baptos (Chaudhri & Akbar)

8) Basifemur III with 4 setae 9

- Basifemur III with 5 setae 10

9) Genu I with 8 setae; telofemur I with 4 Setae simplex (Ewing)

- Genu I with 9 setae; telofemora I with 5 setae irroratus Muhammad & Chaudhri

10) Para anal seta present comis Muhammad & Chaudhri

- Para anal seta absent 11

11) Genu I–IV with 8-7-6-6 setae kayfayati (Inayatullah & Shahid)

- Genu I–IV with 9-8-6-7 setae disparis Muhammad & Chaudhri

Coleoscirus baptos (Chaudhri & Akbar)

  • Pseudocunaxa baptos Chaudhri & Akbar, 1985: 223

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Charrapani (Murree)

  • Known source: Pine (Pinus spp.)

  • Coleoscirus carex (Inayatullah & Shahid)

  • Pseudocunaxa carex Inayatullah & Shahid, 1993: 318

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Peshawar

  • Known source: Rotten leaves

  • Coleoscirus carnus Muhammad & Chaudhri

  • Coleoscirus carnus Muhammad & Chaudhri, 1992: 309

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Peshawar

  • Known source: Pear (Pyrus communis)

  • Coleoscirus comis Muhammad & Chaudhri

  • Coleoscirus comis Muhammad & Chaudhri, 1992: 99

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Faisalabad

  • Known source: Stored wheat

  • Coleoscirus disparis Muhammad & Chaudhri

  • Coleoscirus disparis Muhammad & Chaudhri, 1992: 310

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Karachi

  • Known source: Stored rice (Oryza sativa)

  • Coleoscirus irroratus Muhammad & Chaudhri

  • Coleoscirus irroratus Muhammad & Chaudhri, 1992: 99

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Shahkot, Gujranwala, Faisalabad

  • Known source: Wheat (Triticum aestivum), sugarcane, debris

  • Coleoscirus kifayati (Inayatullah & Shahid)

  • Pseudocunaxa kifayati Inayatullah & Shahid, 1993: 315

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Peshawar

  • Known source: Banana (Musa paradisiaca)

  • Coleoscirus mardi (Inatullah & Shahid)

  • Pseudocunaxa mardi Inatullah & Shahid, 1993: 316

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Mingora (Swat)

  • Known source: Rice (Oryza sativa)

  • Coleoscirus raviensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq & Khan

  • Coleoscirus raviensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq & Khan, 2008: 453

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Lahore, Kasoor, Sialkot, Bahawalpur

  • Known source: Plant debris

  • Coleoscirus simplex Ewing

  • Scirus simplex Ewing, 1917: 150

  • Cunaxa simplex (Ewing), Thor & Willmann, 1941: 172; Baker & Hoffmann, 1948: 240; Muma, 1960: 324; Shiba, 1978: 114

  • Pseudocunaxa simplex Smiley, 1975: 241; Chaudhri, 1977:43; 1985:223; Inayatullah & Shahid, 1993: 315

  • Coleoscirus simplex (Ewing), den Heyer, 1979c: 524; 1980d: 105; Sepasgosaran, 1984: 143

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Faisalabad, Multan, Khanewal, Layyah, Lodhran, Toba Tek Singh, Lahore, Okara, Sahiwal, Gujranwala,

  • Known source: Plant debris, cucumber, tomato, brinjal, citrus

  • Coleoscirus tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq & Khan

  • Coleoscirus tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq & Khan, 2008: 455

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Faisalabad, T.T. Singh, Chakwal, Sialkot

  • Known source: Plant debris

  • Coleoscirus trudus Bashir, Afzal & Khan

  • Coleoscirus trudus Bashir, Afzal & Khan, 2006: 74

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Faisalabad, Muzzafarghar, Toba Tek Singh, Kasoor, D.G. Khan

  • Known source: Leaf debris

  • Genus Pseudobonzia

    Key to species of genus Pseudobonzia known from Pakistan

    1) Palp tibiotarsus with thick spine-like Seta 2

    - Palp tibiotarsus without thick spinelike Seta bakeri, sp. n.

    2) Ventral hysterosoma with 5 pairs simple setae between coxae II and distal part of the body excluding setae of anal and genital region parilus Chaudhri

    - Ventral hysterosoma with more than 5 pairs simple setae between coxae II and distal part of the body excluding setae of anal and genital region 3

    3) Venter with 7 pairs simple setae between coxae II and distal part of the body in addition to setae of anal and genital region; coxa IV with 2 setae numida Chaudhri & Akbar

    - Venter with 6 pairs simple setae between coxae II and distal part of the body in addition to setae of anal and genital region; coxa IV with 3 setae ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal & Akbar

    Pseudobonzia ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal & Akbar

  • Pseudobonzia ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, 2008: 77

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Faisalabad

  • Known source: Plant debris

  • Pseudobonzia numida Chaudhri & Akbar

  • Pseudobonzia numida Chaudhri & Akbar, 1985: 220

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Hassanabdal

  • Known source: Fungus

  • Pseudobonzia parilus Chaudhri

  • Pseudobonzia parilus Chaudhri, 1977: 45

  • Known distribution: Pakistan: Sialkot

  • Known source: Chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens)

  • Pseudobonzia bakeri, Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, Raza & Kamran, sp. n.
    (Figures 14)

  • Female

    Gnathosoma. Gnathosoma 140 long and 80 wide. Hypostome sub rectangular, cone shaped distally; with 4 pairs hypognathal setae (hg1–hg4) (Figure 1A). Palp 5 segmented, measuring 110. Chaetotaxy of palp as follows: trochanter none; basifemur with one simple seta; telofemur with one simple seta; genu with 4 simple setae; tibiotarsus terminating in a claw, with 6 simple setae (Figure 1B).

    Chelicerae 135 long, terminating in a claw, with one simple dorsomedial seta, dorsal and ventral sides with papillae (Figure 1C).

  • Dorsum. Body 370 long (without gnathosoma) and 270 wide. Propodosoma with a weakly sclerotized sub rectangular shield bearing randomly placed different sized papillae. Propodosomal shield with sensillae vi and sce measuring 100 and 115, respectively, and propodosomal setae ve measuring 17, sci measuring 11.

    Hysterosoma separated from propodosoma by papillae bearing striae. Hysterosoma with setae c1, c2, d1, e1, f1, f2, h1, and h2 measuring 11, 11, 11, 11, 13, 12, 17, and 17, respectively. Hysterosoma with one pair of cupules, im, on integument anterior to setae f1 (Figure 2).

  • Venter. Venter with papillate striations. Coxae I–II contiguous, connected by small lateral apodemes; coxae III–IV contiguous, broader than coxae I–II. Ventral hysterosoma with 1 pairs propodogastral simple setae and 7 pairs hysterogastral setae in addition to setae of anal and genital region. Genital shield with two valves bearing papillae. Each valve with 4 genital setae (g1g4) longitudinal aligned and 2 genital suckers. Two pairs of anal setae (a) and one pair of paranal setae (pa) present. One pair minute pores near anal shield (Figure 3).

  • Legs. All legs pitted with papillae and blunt ended. Legs I–IV measuring (from trochanter base to the tip of tarsus) 193, 185, 185, and 187 respectively. Chaetotaxy of legs I–IV as follows: Coxae 3-3-3-3 sts; trochanters 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora 2-4-4-2 sts; telofemora 5-5-4-4 sts; genua 8 (3 asl + 5 sts)-8-6-5 sts; tibiae 7 (1 asl + 1 bsl + 5 sts)-6 (1 bsl + 5 sts)-6 (1 bsl + 5 sts)-5 (1 T + 4 sts) and tarsi 25 (3 asl + 1 peo+ 2 bsl + 19 sts)-25 (1 asl + 24 sts)-18-16 sts (Figure 4).

  • Male

    Unknown.

  • Type material. Holotype female, collected in Lahore from leaf debris on 28 August 2004 (Hamid) and deposited in the Acarology Research Laboratory, Department of Agri. Entomology, University of Agriculture, Pakistan.

  • Etymology. The species epithet is in reference to Dr. Edward W. Baker, Research Entomologist (Acarology), Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, for his outstanding contribution to the field of Acarology.

  • Remarks. This new species, Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n., is very similar to P. summersi Smiley but can be separated by the following characters: 1) Ventral hysterosoma with 5 pairs hysterogastral setae in P. summersi, compared to 7 pairs in P. bakeri sp. n.; 2) Chaetotaxy of legs I–IV in P. summersi is: basifemora 4-6-4-2, telofemora 5-5-4-3, genua 8-7-6-6, tibiae 7-6-6-5, and tarsi 18-19-20-18, whereas in P. bakeri sp. n. the chaetotaxy is: basifemora 2-4-4-2, telofemora 5-5-4-4, genua 8-8-6-5, tibiae 7-6-6-5, and tarsi 25-25-18-16.

    Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n. can be separated from P. clathratus (Shiba) by the following characters: 1) Palp tibiotarsus with 5 simple setae in P. clathratus, whereas with 6 simple setae in P. bakeri sp. n.; 2) Venter with 6 pairs of hysterogastral setae in P. clathratus, compared to 7 pairs in P. bakeri sp. n.; 3) Chaetotaxy of legs I-IV in P. clathratus is: basifemora 3-3-2-1, telofemora 6-5-4-3, genua 9-6-6-6, tibiae 8-6-6-5, and tarsi 27-21-18-14, whereas in P. bakeri sp. n. the chaetotaxy is: basifemora 2-4-4-1, telofemora 4-5-4-4, genua 8-8-5-5, tibiae 7-6-5-5, and tarsi 24-25-18-16.

    This new species can also be compared with P. delfinadobakerae Smiley, however, they can be separated by the combination of the following features: 1) Palp tibiotarsus with a thick spine-like seta in P. delfinadobakerae, whereas it is absent in P. bakeri sp. n.; 2) Venteral hysterosoma with 6 pairs of hysterogastral setae in P. delfinadobakerae, compared to 7 pairs in P. bakeri sp. n.; 3) Chaetotaxy of legs I–IV in P. delfinadobakerae is: basifemora 3-3-2-1, telofemora 6-5-4-3, genua 9-7-6-6, tibiae 7-6-6-5, and tarsi 26-21-18-14, whereas in P. bakeri sp. n. the chaetotaxy is: basifemora 2-4-4-1, telofemora 4-5-4-4, genua 8-8-5-5, tibiae 7-6-5-5, and tarsi 24-25-18-16; 4) Genital shield and coxae are papillate in P. bakeri sp. n., whereas they are reticulated in P. delfinadobakerae.

  • Figure 1.

    Pseudobonzia bakeri, sp. n. A: Hypostome; B: Palp; C: Chelicera. High quality figures are available online.

    f01_01.jpg

    Figure 2.

    Pseudobonzia bakeri, sp. n. Dorsal side. High quality figures are available online.

    f02_01.jpg

    Figure 3.

    Pseudobonzia bakeri, sp. n. Ventral side. High quality figures are available online.

    f03_01.jpg

    Figure 4.

    Pseudobonzia bakeri, sp. n. Legs I–IV. High quality figures are available online.

    f04_01.jpg

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    This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.
    Muhammad Hamid Bashir, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Ashfaq, Shaukat Ali, Muhammad Kamran, and Sabyan Faris Honey "Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with Description of One New Species from Pakistan," Journal of Insect Science 14(82), 1-14, (1 June 2014). https://doi.org/10.1673/031.014.82
    Received: 26 April 2012; Accepted: 12 March 2014; Published: 1 June 2014
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