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Queens in many social insects are known to maintain their status through chemicals (pheromones) and cuticular hydrocarbons and have been the focus of many investigations that have looked at the chemicals involved in queen signaling. In the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), the Dufour's gland has been shown to be involved in queen signaling, and Dufour's gland hydrocarbons have been found to be correlated with fertility. Hence, this study analyzed the cuticle of R. marginata along with the Dufour's gland in order to compare their hydrocarbon profiles. The results show that the Dufour's gland and cuticle contained the same set of hydrocarbons in similar proportions (for the majority of compounds). Patterns pertaining to fertility signaling present in cuticular hydrocarbons were also similar to those present in the Dufour's gland hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the haemolymph contained the same hydrocarbons as found in the Dufour's gland and cuticle in similar proportions, thereby providing an explanation as to why the hydrocarbon profiles of the Dufour's gland and cuticle are correlated.