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Seasonal flight activity of Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults was monitored using yellow sticky traps at sweet cherry orchards under different management regimes in Bursa, northwestern Turkey, during 1997–1998. In the reduced-risk backyard orchards, soil ploughing in the fall or spring to destroy the pupae was combined with a single application of an insecticide, while conventionally managed orchards received six to seven insecticide applications for controlling adults. Traps in commercial orchards caught significantly fewer adults than those in reduced-risk backyard orchards. Levels of cherry fruit fly fruit damage were very low (0.1%) in commercial orchards, whereas infestation rates averaged 2.2% in reduced-risk orchards. A preliminary phenology model was developed for optimal timing of insecticide applications based on air temperature summations since 1 February. In the reduced-risk backyard orchards, the first flies were captured between 25 May and 2 June, corresponding to an average degree-day (DD) accumulation of 582.50 ± 10.50 DD at an altitude of 150 m. However, first adult emergence at 1170 m was recorded between 6 and 14 June, averaging 667.50 ± 14.50 DD. Adult emergence exhibited bimodal peaks in a single flight at low altitude but there was a single peak at high altitude sites. Total adult flight period averaged 459 ± 29.50 and 649 ± 25.50 DD at low and high altitude sites, respectively. Our prediction model suggests that the optimum spray-window for a single insecticide application occurs between 577.70 and 639.40 DD at 150 m and between 780.90 and 848.60 DD at 1170 m.
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