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26 September 2019 Sex-biased dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in Hokkaido brown bears
Yuri Shirane, Michito Shimozuru, Masami Yamanaka, Hifumi Tsuruga, Masanao Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka, Takane Nose, Shinsuke Kasai, Masataka Shirayanagi, Yasushi Masuda, Yasushi Fujimoto, Tsutomu Mano, Mariko Sashika, Toshio Tsubota
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Abstract

Natal dispersal likely plays an important role in avoiding inbreeding among large carnivores. We tested the hypothesis that male-biased dispersal reduces close inbreeding by limiting the spatial overlap of opposite-sex pairs of close relatives in brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. We genotyped 837 individuals collected in 1998–2017 at 21 microsatellite loci and performed parentage analysis. To calculate natal dispersal distance, we considered the site where the mother was identified as the birthplace of her offspring, and the site where the offspring were identified as their dispersed place. As predicted, we found that dispersal distances were significantly greater for males (12.4 km ± 1.0) than for females (7.7 km ± 0.9), and those for males increased from 3 years old, indicating that males begin to disperse around the time sexual maturation begins. Relatedness decreased with distance among pairs of females, and the mean relatedness was significantly higher between pairs of females than between pairs of males or between female–male pairs within 3 km. Closely related female–male pairs rarely (5–6%) resided in close proximity (< 3 km), compared with pairs of closely related females. Our study revealed that the potential for close inbreeding was low in Hokkaido brown bears because males are effective dispersers.

© 2019 American Society of Mammalogists, www.mammalogy.org
Yuri Shirane, Michito Shimozuru, Masami Yamanaka, Hifumi Tsuruga, Masanao Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka, Takane Nose, Shinsuke Kasai, Masataka Shirayanagi, Yasushi Masuda, Yasushi Fujimoto, Tsutomu Mano, Mariko Sashika, and Toshio Tsubota "Sex-biased dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in Hokkaido brown bears," Journal of Mammalogy 100(4), 1317-1326, (26 September 2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyz097
Received: 27 November 2018; Accepted: 13 May 2019; Published: 26 September 2019
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