Coexistence of sympatric felids is facilitated by mutual avoidance and the partitioning of habitats, prey, and time. Anthropogenic disturbances disrupt this coexistence in fragmented landscapes, potentially triggering cascading influences in ecological communities. We used photographic data from 8,717 trap nights (November 2014–June 2016) at 87 camera trap sites in Colombia's middle Magdalena River basin to compare spatiotemporal overlap among jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), their prey, and humans, at sites of high and low disturbance, as determined by the human influence index. Human disturbance events (e.g., domestic dogs, livestock, and humans, including armed hunters) comprised 38% of all photographs at high disturbance sites and 29% of all photographs at low disturbance sites. Differential spatiotemporal overlaps were recorded between felids and their prey at high versus low disturbance sites, with jaguars exhibiting only 13% temporal overlap with humans at high disturbance sites. Among prey, temporal overlap was greater than spatial overlap for both felids across the study area. Compared to jaguars, pumas displayed more temporal overlap with all anthropogenic variables and more spatial overlap with most anthropogenic variables, suggesting lesser sensitivity to human disturbances. This study provides the first insights into the responses of a threatened large carnivore, jaguar, to camera trap-derived human disturbance variables in an unprotected landscape. It also highlights the importance of using multiple disturbance types for evaluating human impacts on large carnivores.
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Vol. 102 • No. 1