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13 April 2021 Minor modification of frequency modulated call parameters underlies a shift in behavioral response in the Great Himalayan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros armiger
Chunmian Zhang, Congnan Sun, Zhiqiang Wang, Peichen Lin, Yanhong Xiao, Walter Metzner, Jiang Feng, Tinglei Jiang
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Abstract

Different categories of social calls may be used in a variety of behavioral contexts and may have different functions. Here, we show that Great Himalayan leaf-nosed bats emit two types of calls: bent upward frequency modulated (bUFM) calls emitted during agonistic interactions between two bats that have perched close to each other and stepped upward frequency modulated (sUFM) calls emitted by a roosting individual when a free-flying bat approached. There were significant differences in acoustic parameters between bUFM calls and sUFM calls. Moreover, we tested different choices of Hipposideros armiger to playback of bUFM calls and sUFM calls. The bats avoided the location of bUFM call playbacks independent of the simultaneous playback of echolocation pulses, silence, or sUFM calls. The bats also avoided approaching the side of the flight room where sUFM calls were broadcast when also presented with playbacks of echolocation pulses, but not when simultaneously presented with silence. The results suggest that bUFM calls may serve the function of territorial defense, while sUFM calls may convey warning information. Our results, therefore, imply that the two types of calls have different functions depending on behavioral context. These differences in function suggest that bats can detect context-dependent modifications of acoustic cues across the two types of social calls.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Mammalogists, www.mammalogy.org.
Chunmian Zhang, Congnan Sun, Zhiqiang Wang, Peichen Lin, Yanhong Xiao, Walter Metzner, Jiang Feng, and Tinglei Jiang "Minor modification of frequency modulated call parameters underlies a shift in behavioral response in the Great Himalayan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros armiger," Journal of Mammalogy 102(2), 457-467, (13 April 2021). https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyab019
Received: 10 August 2020; Accepted: 9 February 2021; Published: 13 April 2021
KEYWORDS
acoustic communication
behavioral contexts
Hipposideros armiger
social calls
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