The genus Abrocoma (family Abrocomidae) is distributed from southern Peru and northern Chile to Bolivia and then southward to the west-central region of Mendoza Province, Argentina. The systematics of the genus is poorly known. Ten taxa were originally described but later synonymized into 2 species. Five taxa were included in Abrocoma cinerea and 5 in A. bennetti. A 3rd species, A. boliviensis, was described in 1990, and a new genus and species, Cuscomys ashaninka, were described in 1999. We reevaluate the systematics of the A. cinerea species complex, with emphasis on Argentine specimens, using cranial, dental, and external morphology. A new species of Abrocoma from Mendoza Province, Argentina, is described. Karyotypic information is presented. Behavior, habitat, and natural history are also discussed.
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