We studied the influence of human activity, hunting of prey by wolves, reproduction, and weather conditions on daily patterns and duration of activity of 11 radiotracked wolves (Canis lupus) in the Białowieża Forest (Poland) from 1994 to 1999. On average, wolves were active 45.2% ± 0.9 SE of the time and traveled 0.92 ± 0.05 km/h. The mean length of activity bouts was 0.76 ± 0.05 h, whereas inactivity bouts averaged 1.02 ± 0.07 h. Wolves were active throughout the day, but their activity peaked at dawn and dusk, which coincided with periods when they killed most prey. Periods of reproduction and high temperatures had less pronounced effects on activity patterns. Human activity and other factors did not significantly affect the wolves' daily activity patterns. The influence of humans may be indirect if hunting of ungulates by humans modifies activity patterns of the wolves' prey. We conclude that the daily activity patterns of wolves in our study area were mainly shaped by their pattern of hunting prey.
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