Despite previous work on the North American sigmodontine rodents, phylogenetic relationships within the neotomine–peromyscine complex remain conjectural. The debate focuses not only on the number of tribes within the group, but also on the relationships of genera within each tribe. Phylogenetic relationships of 19 species representing 13 genera of neotomine–peromyscine rodents were examined by using approximately 1,200 base pairs (bp) of exon 6 of the nuclear, protein-coding dentin matrix protein 1 gene (Dmp1). The topology obtained from the maximum likelihood analysis indicated that 4 tribes should be recognized: the Neotomini, Peromyscini, Baiomyini, and Tylomyini, with the Tylomyini sister to a rapidly radiating clade of neotomine–peromyscine–baiomyine rodents. In addition, it appears that Dmp1 is phylogenetically informative at the tribal level in North American sigmodontine rodents.
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