Humeral variation associated with digging ability in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys was analyzed through 6 functionally significant indexes. The humerus of some extinct and living species was slightly more specialized than that of fossorial octodontoids †Actenomys and Octodon, whereas it was highly specialized in some living species. The constant occurrence of greater epicondyles suggests a hierarchical pattern in the acquisition of scratch-digging specializations. A possible relationship between humeral morphological diversity and environments is preliminarily discussed.
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