Pyrethroid-treated nets are an efficient tool for reducing malaria transmission and morbidity. The recent evolution of pyrethroid resistance in several Anopheles species represents a major threat for the future success of roll back malaria in Africa. The possible use of nonpyrethroid insecticides, such as carbamates, on nets is a promising alternative solution because these insecticides are effective against susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. Unfortunately, carbamate resistance as a result of insensitive acetylcholinesterase has recently been detected in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from Côte d’Ivoire. Using biochemical assays on surviving Anopheles mosquitoes from an experimental hut trial, we showed evidence for selection for an insensitive acetylcholinesterase mechanism by carbamate impregnated bednets. However, no such selection has been found with nets treated with pyrethroid alone or pyrethroid/carbamate “two-in-one”-treated nets. Because pyrethroid-impregnated nets were suspected to select for the Kdr mutation in An. gambiae, we propose that use of two-in-one nets could be a promising alternative strategy for the management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors.
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Vol. 40 • No. 6