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1 November 2005 Effects of Temperature on the Rate of Increase of Stomoxys calcitrans and Stomoxys niger niger (Diptera: Muscidae) from La Réunion Island
Jeremie Gilles, Jean-Francois David, Gerard Duvallet
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Adult survival and reproduction were compared between two Stomoxys species that co-occur in La Réunion, the cosmopolitan Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), and the tropical Stomoxys niger niger Macquart. In a first experiment, mean longevity and fecundity were determined at five constant temperatures from 15 to 35°C, after development at the same temperatures. Adult longevity was greatest at 20°C in S. calcitrans and at 15°C in S. niger. Adult S. niger survived longer than adult S. calcitrans, especially at 15°C. At 35°C, all flies died within 3 d. Reproduction occurred only within the 20–30°C range, and S. niger laid more eggs than S. calcitrans. In both species, lifetime fecundity tended to decrease when temperature increased, because of the shortening of the oviposition period. In a second experiment, adults were maintained at 15°C after development at 25°C. The higher temperature during development significantly increased adult longevity in S. calcitrans but not in S. niger. Reproduction occurred at 15°C, with notable fecundity in S. calcitrans (22 eggs per female) but not in S. niger (<1 egg per female). Using previous results on immature survival and developmental time in the two species, several life history parameters were compared at each temperature. Generation time decreased with increasing temperature and was highly similar in both species. Concurrently, the intrinsic rate of increase (r) increased with temperature from 15 to 30°C. At 15°C, r was higher in S. calcitrans, but within the 20–30°C range, r was higher in S. niger. The results suggest 1) S. niger has evolved a strategy of survival without any reproduction during the tropical winter, in contrast with S. calcitrans that breeds more continuously; and 2) S. niger may outnumber S. calcitrans in warm areas, at least when development occurs in media of poor quality.

Jeremie Gilles, Jean-Francois David, and Gerard Duvallet "Effects of Temperature on the Rate of Increase of Stomoxys calcitrans and Stomoxys niger niger (Diptera: Muscidae) from La Réunion Island," Journal of Medical Entomology 42(6), 959-965, (1 November 2005).[0959:EOTOTR]2.0.CO;2
Received: 7 January 2005; Accepted: 28 May 2005; Published: 1 November 2005

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La Réunion Island
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