The complete 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 rDNA sequences were obtained from Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel and Anopheles plumbeus Stephens from two areas of Spain. The number of nucleotide differences in the 18S rDNA of the two species is high compared with differences in the same gene of other invertebrate vectors. In Anopheles, short 18S rDNA sequences are richer in AT than the longer sequences, which are richer in GC and include extremely GC-biased expanded regions. Four small regions in the variable regions V4 and V7 contain the majority of nucleotide differences. The results did not support the use of partial sequences for relationship analyses. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses supported the most recent classification of Anopheles. The complete 18S rDNA sequence is better for studying anopheline phylogenetics.
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