To advance our limited knowledge of global mosquito biogeography, we analyzed country occurrence records from the Systematic Catalog of the Culicidae (http://www.mosquitocatalog. org/main.asp), and we present world maps of species richness and endemism. A latitudinal biodiversity gradient was observed, with species richness increasing toward the equator. A linear log-log species (y)–area (x) relationship (SAR) was found that we used to compare observed and expected species densities for each country. Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand had the highest numbers of species, and Brazil also had the highest taxonomic output and number of type locations. Brazil, Australia, the Philippines, and Indonesia had the highest numbers of endemic species, but excluding small island countries, Panama, French Guiana, Malaysia, and Costa Rica had the highest densities of total species and endemic species. Globally, 50% of mosquito species are endemic. Island countries had higher total number of species and higher number of endemic species than mainland countries of similar size, but the slope of the SAR was similar for island and mainland countries. Islands also had higher numbers of publications and type locations, possibly due to greater sampling effort and/or species endemism on islands. The taxonomic output was lowest for some countries in Africa and the Middle East. A consideration of country estimates of past sampling effort and species richness and endemism is proposed to guide mosquito biodiversity surveys. For species groups, we show that the number of species of Anopheles subgenus Anopheles varies with those of subgenus Cellia in a consistent manner between countries depending on the region. This pattern is discussed in relation to hypotheses about the historical biogeography and ecology of this medically important genus. Spatial analysis of country species records offers new insight into global patterns of mosquito biodiversity and survey history.
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Vol. 44 • No. 4