In a recent study, the combined use of 4-Posters and Maxforce TMS bait boxes along with a barrier application of deltamethrin resulted in accelerated control of Ixodes scapularis Say by sequentially attacking each postembryonic life stage. We report the results of a follow-up study to test the ability of 4-Posters used alone to sustain the high levels of control achieved through the integrated tick management (ITM) approach after withdrawal of the bait boxes. In the first year after withdrawal, we observed declines in the level of control of larvae on small mammals, as well as of numbers of host-seeking larvae in the treatment area. There was no difference in the level of control of host-seeking adults in the treatment area after 2 yr. Within 2 yr, we observed a decline in control of subadult ticks infesting small mammals, but continued to see significant control of both host-seeking nymphs (85.9%) and larvae (89.0%) in the treatment area. The inconsistency that we observed between the apparent ability of 4-Posters to sustain high levels of control of host-seeking ticks, although having less effect on tick burdens on small mammal hosts, may be explained by the host-seeking ecology of immature I. scapularis.
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Vol. 45 • No. 5