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1 September 2008 Determination of Permethrin Resistance Allele Frequency of Human Head Louse Populations by Quantitative Sequencing
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A quantitative sequencing (QS) protocol that detects the frequencies of sodium channel mutations (M815I, T917I, and L920F) responsible for knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) was tested as a population genotyping method for use as a preliminary resistance monitoring tool. Genomic DNA fragments of the sodium channel α-subunit gene that encompass the three mutation sites were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-1 amplified from individual head lice with either resistant or susceptible genotypes, and combined in various ratios to generate standard DNA template mixtures for QS. After sequencing, the signal ratios between resistant and susceptible nucleotides were calculated and plotted against the corresponding resistance allele frequencies. Quadratic regression coefficients of the plots were close to 1, demonstrating that the signal ratios are highly correlated with the resistance allele frequencies. Resistance allele frequencies predicted by QS, using either “pooled DNA” (DNA extracted from individual louse specimens and pooled) or “pooled specimen DNA” (DNA simultaneously extracted from multiple louse specimens), agreed well with those determined by individual sequencing, confirming the reliability and accuracy of QS as a population genotyping method and validating our approach of using the pooled specimen DNA as the DNA template for QS. Our protocol for QS was determined to be highly reliable for the prediction of resistance allele frequencies higher than ≈7.4% at the 95% confidence level. According to the resistance allele frequencies determined by QS, pyrethroid resistance varies substantially among different geographical regions, emphasizing the importance of early resistance detection and proper management strategies.

Deok Ho Kwon, Kyong Sup Yoon, Joseph P. Strycharz, J. Marshall Clark, and Si Hyeock Lee "Determination of Permethrin Resistance Allele Frequency of Human Head Louse Populations by Quantitative Sequencing," Journal of Medical Entomology 45(5), 912-920, (1 September 2008).[912:DOPRAF]2.0.CO;2
Received: 5 February 2008; Accepted: 4 June 2008; Published: 1 September 2008

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