A field test of integrated vector control was conducted in a tropical urban setting with a combination of a floating, slow-release, granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus and environmental engineering measures (renovation of roads, collective water pumps, and cesspool lids). The targets were Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae in the two biggest towns of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Within the intervention zone, water pumping stations were improved and the surroundings drained to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water. Roads were leveled and given either simple gutters on each side or a concrete channel on one side to drain runoff water. Garbage containers were installed to provide an alternative to the drainage channels for waste disposal. Septic tanks were modified so that they could be emptied without destroying their lid. This study showed that it is possible to implement mosquito control in a tropical urban environment with teams of young people rapidly trained to apply a biological larvicide without any tools other than an iron bar to lift cesspool lids. Environmental improvements were initially costly, but demanded little subsequent expenditure. Local inhabitants' committees were mobilized to provide people with information and monitor the efficacy of the measures. Compared with what people spent individually on mosquito prevention and malaria medicine, these measures were not expensive, but many expected the community to pay for them from existing taxes, e.g., for water treatment and disposal. The necessary funding and logistics require a municipal organization with neighborhood support, if the measures are to be effective.
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Vol. 48 • No. 4