Stormwater treatment systems (STS) intended to mitigate the potentially negative public health and environmental impact caused by urban runoff are highly conducive to mosquito production. Thirty-one STS, 15 aboveground extended detention basins (EDBs) and 16 proprietary belowground systems newly installed along State Route 125 in San Diego County, CA, were inspected monthly between July 2008 and June 2009 for presence of standing water and mosquitoes. During the 12-mo study, standing water was observed in 66% of the 180 total inspections to EDBs and at least once in each of the 15 basins, whereas belowground systems held water year-round in permanent-water sumps. With the exception of one EDB, immature mosquitoes were observed in all STS, during every month of the year in EDBs and all months except December in belowground systems. Cumulatively, mosquitoes were noted in 44% of the 372 total site inspections, with a nearly equal number of positive observations from EDBs and belowground systems. Four species were identified from EDBs, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, Anopheles hermsi Barr and Guptavanij, and Culiseta incidens (Thompson). Cx. quinquefasciatus was the sole species identified from belowground systems. Results derived from this study provide additional evidence for mosquito production in STS because of structural design or persistent inflows, or both, of dry-weather urban runoff. Interagency collaboration is needed to ensure that STS are designed and maintained in a way that minimizes their potential to produce mosquitoes that can negatively affect public health.
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Vol. 48 • No. 6