A southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say colony was established from surviving late instars and pupae from a semifield evaluation on Natular XRG (a granular formulation containing 2.5% spinosad). The initial lethal levels of Natular XRG against this colony were determined in the laboratory for the first-generation progeny (designated as F1). Selection pressure was applied at LC70–90 levels to 10,000–15,000 late third- and early fourth-instar larvae of each generation with Natular XRG. Susceptibility changes in response to selection were determined every other generation, where a gradual and steady decline in susceptibility occurred from generation F1 to F35, followed by significant decline from generations F37 to F45 For reference purposes, susceptibility of freshly collected wild populations as well as a laboratory colony of the same species was also determined concurrently, which fluctuated within a slightly wider range for the wild populations and a tighter range for the laboratory colony. By comparing with wild populations and laboratory reference colony, tolerance to spinosad was observed from generations up to F9 in the selected population. Resistance levels increased gradually from generation F11 to F35, and elevated significantly from generations F37 to F45 when resistance ratios reached 1,415.3- to 2,229.9-fold at LC50 and 9,613.1- to 17,062.6-fold at LC90 Possible mechanisms of resistance development to spinosad were discussed.
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Vol. 51 • No. 2