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1 September 2015 Defining Genetic, Taxonomic, and Geographic Boundaries among Species of the Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex in North and South America
Gregory C. Lanzaro, Travis C. Collier, Yoosook Lee
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The Psorophora confinnis complex is currently composed of three species—Psorophora confinnis sensu stricto (Lynch Arribalzaga) in South America, Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) in North America, and Psorophora jamaicensis (Theobald) in the Caribbean. Members of the complex are of considerable importance as vectors of arboviruses, for example, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and are significant biting pests throughout their range. The biological and geographic boundaries of Ps. confinnis and Ps. columbiae are unclear. In fact, the name Ps. columbiae is presently designated as “provisional.” In this article, we aim to clarify the taxonomy and geographic distributions of species within the Ps. confinnis complex. A population genetics approach was employed using gene and genotypic frequency data at 26 isozyme loci. The results suggest that the Ps. confinnis complex in North and South America is composed of four species. Ps. confinnis s.s. and Ps. columbiae are distinct species in South and North America, respectively. Populations in Colombia, South America, formally designated as Ps. funiculus (Dyar) and populations in the southwestern United States and western Mexico, formally designated Ps. toltecum (Dyar and Knab), are distinct species. Psorophora toltecum and Psorophora funiculus species names should be resurrected from synonymy. In addition we identified a Ps. columbiae and Ps. toltecum hybrid zone in central Texas in a region described as being one of 13 North American suture zones, being geographical areas in which closely related species occur in sympatry and frequently hybridize.

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Gregory C. Lanzaro, Travis C. Collier, and Yoosook Lee "Defining Genetic, Taxonomic, and Geographic Boundaries among Species of the Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex in North and South America," Journal of Medical Entomology 52(5), 907-917, (1 September 2015).
Received: 29 March 2015; Accepted: 2 June 2015; Published: 1 September 2015

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hybrid zone
population genetics
Psorophora columbiae
Psorophora funiculus
Psorophora toltecum
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