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1 November 2015 Seasonality and Diapause of Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) at Its Southern Limits in North America, with Observations on Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)
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Abstract

The face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans ([L.])) were studied at the southern edge of the face fly's North American range, examining southern California geographic distribution, seasonal activity on cattle and in dung, and diapause. Face flies were common only at Pomona (34°03′N, 117°48′W). Other irrigated pastures, even those only slightly inland from Pomona, were probably too warm for face flies, due to a steep west (cooler) to east (warmer) temperature gradient. Horn flies were abundant at all sites. Adult densities on cattle, adults emerging from dung pats, and prevalence of fly-positive pats were assessed for both fly species throughout a year at Pomona. Summer adult horn fly densities of 500–2,000 flies per cow, or face fly densities of 3–10 flies per face, were common. Summer prevalence of face fly-positive pats and horn fly-positive pats was about 20–40% and 30–70%, respectively. Face fly adults diapaused from late October until late March and early April. Horn flies probably diapaused as pupae from late October or early November to early-mid March, although some emerged in winter. Experimental cohorts of October-emerging adult face flies were held in a representative overwintering site. They exhibited hypertrophied fat body and undeveloped oocytes, which are characteristics of diapause, and survived until the following spring. The dominant diapause cues in face and horn flies are probably photoperiod and temperature. Despite warm winter temperatures that would permit activity of both species, and despite relatively long winter day lengths, face flies and most horn flies still diapaused at this latitude.

© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Fallon E. Fowler, Jan Chirico, Broc A. Sandelin, and Bradley A. Mullens "Seasonality and Diapause of Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) at Its Southern Limits in North America, with Observations on Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 52(6), 1213-1224, (1 November 2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjv123
Received: 15 May 2015; Accepted: 25 July 2015; Published: 1 November 2015
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