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1 September 2016 Aspects on the Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Guaraí, State of Tocantins, Brazil, Endemic Area for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Rodrigo Espíndola Godoy, Antônio Luís Ferreira de Santana, Carina Graser, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Maurício Luiz Vilela
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Abstract

In Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) ecology involves a diversity of Leishmania species transmitted by different sand fly species. Workers involved in agricultural activities are those mainly affected by ACL in some regions from Tocantins State (TO), Brazil, where the disease can be established in new settlements. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area. Sand flies were captured in forested area close to Pedra Branca Agricultural Project settlement, from March 2006 until December 2007, using Shannon trap. Monthly captures were made from 06:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., and 24-h captures were done twice per semester, from 06:00 a.m. to 06:00 a.m. A total of 10,089 specimens from 30 species were identified. Psychodopygus complexus Mangabeira, Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, and Nyssomyia antunesi Coutinho were the most abundant species. Nyssomyia antunesi was more frequent during the dry period, whereas Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi had high frequencies during the rainy season. Precipitation was positively correlated with Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi abundance, and negatively correlated with Ny. antunesi. During 24-h captures, the majority of specimens were captured during the night followed by a decrease at dawn. The behavior and previous finding of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis of Ps. complexus led us to the conclusion that this species can be a potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis during the rainy season in Guaraí.

© The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Rodrigo Espíndola Godoy, Antônio Luís Ferreira de Santana, Carina Graser, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, and Maurício Luiz Vilela "Aspects on the Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Guaraí, State of Tocantins, Brazil, Endemic Area for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis," Journal of Medical Entomology 54(1), 229-235, (1 September 2016). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw148
Received: 31 May 2016; Accepted: 12 August 2016; Published: 1 September 2016
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KEYWORDS
American cutaneous leishmaniasis
hourly frequency
Nyssomyia antunesi
Psychodopygus complexus
Seasonality
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