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7 October 2016 How Zoophilic Japanese Encephalitis Vector Mosquitoes Feed on Humans
N. Tuno, Y. Tsuda, M. Takagi
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most frequent cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in Asian countries. Several culicine species are potential vectors. The primary JEV vectors feed mainly on cows (a dead-end host for JEV), pigs (an amplifying host), and, occasionally, humans (a dead-end host). It is essential to determine blood-feeding patterns to understand the transmission cycle of the disease. Here we review blood-feeding characteristics of the primary JEV vectors Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui, and Culex gelidus based on experimental works and field surveys conducted in Asian countries. Several studies showed that these JEV vectors have an innate preference for cows; however, the former two species often showed higher rates of blood-feeding on pigs than on cows, probably because pigs are more abundant than cows. On the other hand, the latter species Cx. gelidus fed mostly on cows. Thus, the first two species showed higher plasticity to compromise host availability than the last. By reviewing the available articles and based on our relevant studies, it may be deduced that JEV transmission cannot be reduced by zooprophylaxis. We emphasize the need of keeping cows away from the human residences to dampen the human risk of JEV. These primary JEV vector species exhibit pre-biting resting. The adaptive significance of this behavior remains to be unexplored, but it may have a function to avoid defensive attack of host animals. Application of recent quantitative analysis of gene expression in this phase may enable us to come up with novel vector control strategies.

© The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
N. Tuno, Y. Tsuda, and M. Takagi "How Zoophilic Japanese Encephalitis Vector Mosquitoes Feed on Humans," Journal of Medical Entomology 54(1), 8-13, (7 October 2016).
Received: 22 June 2016; Accepted: 12 September 2016; Published: 7 October 2016

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Culex gelidus
Culex pseudovishunui
Culex tritaeniorhynchus
Culex vishnui
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