House flies (Musca domestica L.) are mechanical vectors of food-borne pathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Shigella spp., resulting in increased risk of diarrheal disease in areas where flies are abundant. Movement of house flies into food crops may be increased by the presence of honeydew-producing insects feeding on these crops. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), volatile odors that elicited house fly antennal response were identified from naval orange (Osbeck) (Sapindales: Rutaceae) and Marsh grapefruit (Macfad.) (Sapindales: Rutaceae) leaves infested with whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and from whole faba (L.) (Fabales: Fabaceae) bean plants infested with aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Volatiles identified included benzaldehyde, butyl hexanoate, β-caryophyllene, Δ3-carene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, myrcene, limonene, linalool, and naphthalene. This was followed by semifield bioassays of volatile blends and individual volatiles to determine house fly attraction to these volatiles. Although fly capture rates in the semifield setting were low, benzaldehyde and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were consistently attractive to house flies as individual compounds and as components of volatile blends.
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Vol. 57 • No. 3