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13 June 2020 Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lutzomyia reburra (Diptera: Phlebotominae), in Rural Tourist Locations, Biosphere Reserve and Leishmaniasis Endemic Area, Ecuador
Paul L. Duque, Jazzmín Arrivillaga-Henríquez, Sandra Enríquez, Lenin Ron-Garrido, Washington Benítez, Juan-Carlos Navarro
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Abstract

This research represents the first attempt to assess the spatial and temporal distribution based on micromeso scales on two species with different host preference habits (anthropophilic vs zoophilic), in the major Leishmaniasis endemic area in Ecuador, tourist locations, and Biosphere reserve. Phlebotomine species, Lutzomyia trapidoi (Fairchild) and Lutzomyia reburra (Fairchild and Hertig), were analyzed by trap/habitat/month/locality/altitude, through the Poisson generalized regression model. Our data reveal a bimodal pattern for both species related with low precipitations and preference for forest habitat. Altitude, proximity to the forest, and the river were the variables that determine the hypervolume of the spatial distribution of relative abundance, where the overlap of these two species increases the risk of translocation and circulation of the etiological agent of leishmaniasis in sylvatic environments to rural–tourist–biosphere reserve areas and vice versa. The ecological characteristics of these two phlebotomines could explain the permanence of the major active and endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the North-Western Ecuador a key aspect in tourism health-security in alternative tourism.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Paul L. Duque, Jazzmín Arrivillaga-Henríquez, Sandra Enríquez, Lenin Ron-Garrido, Washington Benítez, and Juan-Carlos Navarro "Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lutzomyia reburra (Diptera: Phlebotominae), in Rural Tourist Locations, Biosphere Reserve and Leishmaniasis Endemic Area, Ecuador," Journal of Medical Entomology 57(6), 1905-1912, (13 June 2020). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa102
Received: 17 February 2020; Accepted: 11 May 2020; Published: 13 June 2020
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KEYWORDS
ecology
landscape variables
leishmaniasis disease
phlebotomine distribution
tourism
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