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23 July 2020 Relationship Between the Distribution and Biodiversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) With the Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Endemic Foci of Golestan Province, Iran
Aioub Sofizadeh, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Ehsan Allah Kalteh, Fatemeh Karimi
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Abstract

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is prevalent in Golestan Province, Iran. The current study determined the relationship between the distribution and biodiversity of sand flies with cutaneous leishmaniasis at 14 villages in plain and hillsides areas. In each village from July to September 2017, 60 sticky traps and 2 CDC light traps were laid. Spearman and Mann–Whitney tests were used to determine the relationship between the incidence of ZCL and the abundance of different species of sand flies. Simpson, Shannon-Wiener, Evenness, and Margalef indices were calculated to estimate the diversity of species. A total of 5,295 phlebotomine sand flies were collected, comprising 10 species of the genus Phlebotomus (3,947 flies) and 7 species of genus Sergentomyia (1,248 flies). The abundance of sand flies and incidence of ZCL in plain areas were greater than that of hillsides areas (P = 0.013, P = 0.002). There was a significant correlation between the incidence of ZCL and the abundance of Phlebotomus papatasi (r = 0.72, P = 0.004) and P. caucasicus groups (P = 0.006; 0.022). In the Shannon-Wiener index, the rest of the biodiversity indices were reduced in higher-altitude areas. Increasing Shannon-Wiener index showed higher diversity of sand flies in higher-altitude areas. Data of the reported cases of leishmaniasis in plain areas can reveal the relationship between less diversity index (Shannon-Wiener), higher dominant diversity index (Simpson), and incidence of leishmaniasis in these areas.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Aioub Sofizadeh, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Ehsan Allah Kalteh, and Fatemeh Karimi "Relationship Between the Distribution and Biodiversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) With the Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Endemic Foci of Golestan Province, Iran," Journal of Medical Entomology 57(6), 1768-1774, (23 July 2020). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa114
Received: 28 February 2020; Accepted: 17 May 2020; Published: 23 July 2020
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KEYWORDS
biodiversity
leishmaniasis
vector ecology
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