Description of a new species of the genus Eupholidoptera Maran. This new species, E. jacquelinae, was found on the Greek island of Gavdos, south of Crete. Its relation with other members of the genus is discussed on the basis of morphological traits.
As already stated by Willemse (Willemse & Kruseman 1976; Willemse 1980, 1984) Crete is remarkably rich in species of the genus Eupholidoptera: E. cretica Ramme, E. jorcipata Willemse & Kruseman, E. latens Willemse & Kruseman, E. pallipes Willemse & Kruseman, E. gemellata Willemse & Kruseman and E. astyla (Ramme). After 1984, E. annamariae Nadig (1985) and E. giuliae Massa (1999) were added to the species list of Crete, in 2001, another two new species, E. mariannae Willemse & Heller and E. rammei Willemse & Heller. All these species, in total now 10, are known only from Crete, except for E. astyla which has also been recorded from Naxos (Ramme 1927). However, the record of a single male of E. astyla from Naxos is doubtful (Willemse & Heller 2001).
Off the south coast of Crete in the Libyan Sea is an islet named Gavdos. This small island, 9 km long, with an average width of 5 km, is inhabited by some 50 persons. It has an area of 27 km2 and its highest point, situated on the SW coast, is no more than 382 m above sea-level. Gavdos is the southernmost point of land in Greece and also in Europe.
Govdos lies at a distance of 40 km from the nearest point on the south coast of Crete and is separated from Crete by a sea depth of up to 1100 m. The island has been raised from the sea floor by the collision of two tectonic plates. This geographical isolation is favorable to the development of endemics. Gavdos is known for endemic land snails and plants (Welter-Schultes 1998). To what extent this is also the case in other groups of the fauna of Gavdos is unknown. Due to its isolated geographical location, little research has been done on the islet. Its orthopterous insect fauna was almost completely unknown.
Two collecting trips to the island (11 June 2000 and 30 April to 2 May 2001) showed the expectation of more endemic faunistic elements on Gavdos to be true for the Orthoptera: 4 specimens of an Eupholidoptera species were collected that clearly differ from any of the species previously described in that genus.
Holotype.—♂ (collection Tilmans, Gouda); labelled: Hellas, Gavdos, 50 m/Karave, 11.VI.2000/WGS84 N 34°51.003′ E 024007.236′/legnt. J.M. Tilmans & J.E.R. Tilmans-Smid. With additional label: Specimen nr 2000.005.02.
Allotype.—♀ (collection Tilmans); labelled: Hellas, Gavdos, 50 m/Karave, 30.IV – 2.V.2001/WGS84 N 34°51.003′ E 024, 07.236′/legnt. J.M. Tilmans & J.E.R. Tilmans-Smid. With additional labels: EX LARVA/imago: 25.V.2001 and Specimen nr 2001.004.13.
Paratypes.—2 ♂ ♂: 1 ♂ (collection Fer Willemse, Eygelshoven), same data as holotype, but Specimen nr 2000.005.03; 1 ♂ (collection Tilmans), same data as allotype, but with additional labels: EX LARVA/imago: 25.V.2001 and Specimen nr 2001.004.12.
Description.—Male: general appearance, pronotum, elytra and legs as type species of genus. Stridulatory file of left elytron consists of about 120 teeth; shortest distance between proximal and distal end 3.5 mm, midfile greatest width of teeth 0.12 mm, density of teeth in middle two thirds portion of stridulatory file about 32 mm−1. Last abdominal tergite (Fig. 1.) apically with round dorsomedian depression; posterior margin (Fig. 2) triangularly extended ventrally with v-shaped medial incision, strongly curved frontally, provided with apical tooth on either side; surface of extensions with transverse wrinkles; depression and extensions densely covered with golden-colored hairs.
Cercus (Fig. 3) long, slender, cylindrical with golden-colored short and long hairs, without any tooth, twice as long as greatest length of last abdominal tergite, slightly tapering apically; apical three fourths of cercus slightly bent inwards; tip obtusely conical.
Subgenital plate in ventral view (Fig. 4) convex, remarkably slender with well-defined median keel and next to it on both sides, a depression; strongly elongated apical lobes that (faintly discernable) pass into styli; styli long, slender (length 3 mm, width 0.5 mm), denselygolden-haired, slightly flattened basally, apex obtusely conical; subgenital plate in lateral view (Fig. 5): along the strongly developed lateral margins a deep groove from base of subgenital plate to beginning of elongated apical lobes; apex of lobes dorsally armed with sharp spine that covers basis of stylus.
Titillator (Fig. 6) small, with basal parts extending, weakly curved laterally; apical parts fused, slightly swollen in basal half with medial depression, divided in apical half, from the narrow basis widening up to middle of basal half, from there narrowing apically, tips simply pointed, parallel, surface with transverse wrinkles, in lateral view (Fig. 7) moderately curved dorsally.
Coloration of living specimens: general coloration brownish to olive-green (becoming more brown in preserved material). Pronotal dorsum brown to yellow, orange-brown flush with dark brown markings in middle of prozona, metazona yellow with brown flush. Pronotal lateral lobe with black dorsal fascia, in prozona not sharply delimited ventrally, in metazona more sharply delimited ventrally and strongly narrowing posteriorly, rest of pronotal lateral lobe yellow with vague brown marks except for broad bright yellow margin in metazona. Elytra: area between C and R white, other parts black. Last abdominal tergite blackish brown with vague lighter brown spot on both sides next to middle, lateral margins shiny black. Cercus brown. Subgenital plate from cream white to bright yellow, apical half of elongated apical lobe, basis of spine and stylus orange yellow, tip of spine blackish brown. Titillator in mature specimens: basal parts brown; basal half of apical parts pale yellow, apical half transparent with brownish tips. Legs white-yellow, dorsum of fore and mid femora on both margins with blackish brown marks and short stripes forming two untidy parallel stripes along length of femora; on outside of fore and mid femora also a line of blackish spots and marks. Fore and mid tibiae with blackish-brown spots at base of tibial spines, with blackish brown stripe on apical half of inside of fore femora and outside of mid femora. Hind femur dorsally with a longitudinal blackish brown stripe that nearly reaches blackish colored knee; outside medially with a row of blackish brown transverse stripes and with marks of same color above transverse stripes; inside with partly incomplete transverse stripes in upper half. Hind tibial spines with blackish brown tips.
Female: about same size as male. Elytron completely covered by pronotum or almost so.
Cercus short, conical with golden-colored short and long hairs, nearly straight, tapering apically; tip pointed, slightly bent inwards.
Subgenital plate (Fig. 8) longerthan wide; slightly impressed on both sides of median groove, no wrinkles; hind margin obliquely convergent towards a triangular, median incision along one third of total length, apical lobes diverging with narrowly posterior angles; lateral sides slightly impressed; small lateral sclerite (Fig. 9, arrow) present between upper angle of lateral margin of subgenital plate and lower lateral margin of ninth tergite. Ovipositor nearly twice as long as pronotum, proximal half straight, apical half slightly curved dorsally.
Coloration generally as in male. Sternites, ventral part of subgenital plate and underside of femora yellowish green; lateral sides and hind margin of subgenital plate light brown. Black marking of pronotal lateral lobe notably less extensive than in male, yellow margin in metazona shorter than in male.
Measurements.—(mm) Body: male 24.9 – 32.8, female (not including ovipositor) 32; pronotum: male 10 to 11.2, female 10.5; hind femur: male 23.5 to 25.5, female 25.5; ovipositor: 20.0.
Habitat.—The habitat consists of a rocky ground with sparse vegetation of low trees (Pinus brutia Tenore), thorny shrubs and smaller plants, all specialised in surviving the dry, hot summers of Gavdos.
It is noteworthy that on Crete several of the Eupholidoptera species and Poecilimon cretensis Werner prefer to live in shrubs of Sarcopoterium spinosum (Linnaeus); but on Gavdos, all specimens of E. jacquelinae, together with specimens of P. cretensis were collected only from bushes of Erica verticillata Bergius and not from S. spinosum. In the same habitat specimens of Calliptamus barbarus barbarus (Costa), Pyrgomorpha conica conica (Olivier), Sphingonotus caerulans (Linnaeus), Chorthippus biroi (Kuthy) and the mantid Rivetina baetica (Rambur) were also collected.