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1 June 2003 New neotropical species of the genus Phlugis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae)
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Abstract

Seventeen new species of the predaceous katydid genus Phlugis Karny (Meconematinae) are described and figured. All of these species were collected from rainforests in northern Peru. Three of them — along with the already described species, P. teres (DeGeer) — regularly were captured along trails at ground level; the remaining 14 were collected from treetop canopies 10 to 30 m above ground level, using pesticide fogging methods. Based on the numbers of new forms collected from tree canopies, it is probable that many species of this already large genus are yet to be discovered as this niche is explored more thoroughly.

Introduction

Phlugis Stål 1891 (Meconematinae) is a large genus of small, slender, predaceous katydids. Its world distribution is disjunct, with 10 Australasian (Kevan & Jin 1993) and 24 neotropical species (Otte 1997). Kevan and Jin (1993) resurfaced an obscure, long-overlooked paper describing the tribe Phlugidini (Eichler 1938) — contrasting it with characters defined for the tribe Phisidini (Jin & Kevan 1991) — and included in it the genera Phlugis, Phlugiola Karny 1907, and two additional genera described therein (Phlugidia Kevan 1993, with one species from Africa, and Tenuiphlugis Kevan 1993, with 4 species from Australasia).

Unfortunately, Kevan and Jin (1993), as well as Otte (1997), overlooked the genus Lucienola Gurney 1975, which was erected to separate the Australasian species Phlugiola gressitti Chopard 1969, from neotropical species of Phlugiola. Nickle (2003) corrected this oversight by synonymizing Tenuiphlugis with Lucienola. All of these genera share numerous characters, the most distinctive of which is the presence of open, exposed tympana on the foretibia. Although the Australasian species currently assigned to Phlugis eventually may be removed to another taxon when revisionary studies review all the characters used to define this genus, nevertheless, this genus would still remain as the most speciose genus of meconematine katydids.

In a long-term study (funded to D. A. Nickle and J. L. Castner by Earthwatch Foundation, Cambridge, MA) on the biodiversity of orthopteroid and dictyopteroid insects of northern Peru (Nickle & Castner 1995), I discovered a complex of many additional species of Phlugis, only one of which — P. teres (DeGeer 1773) — has been described. Seventeen of these species are presented in this paper. An identification key of the new species is provided. Specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC [USNM].

The present study is based on a series of 73 males, 65 females, and 11 nymphs collected at 5 sites in northern Peru in Loreto Province. Three of the sites are part of an ecotourist facility, Exploraciones Amazonicas, also known as Explorama, owned and operated by Peter Jenson in Iquitos, Peru. These sites [abbreviated in the text] are as follows: Explorama Inn [INN], 40 km NE Iquitos on Rio Amazon (nr Indiana) lat 3°26′ S, long 73°02′ W; Explorama Lodge [LODGE], 80 km NE Iquitos on Rio Yanamono (1 km upriver from Rio Amazon, lat 3°30′ S, long 73°05′ W); and Explornapo Camp [CAMP], 90 km NE Iquitos on Rio Sucusari (1 km upriver from Rio Amazon, lat 3°11′ S, long 72°53′ W). A fourth site, the Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research [ACEER] nr Explornapo Camp [CAMP], 90 km NE Iquitos on Rio Sucusari (1 km upriver from Rio Napo, lat 3°11′ S, long 72°53′ W), is closely linked to Explornapo Camp. A fifth site, Yacumama Lodge—an ecotourist facility owned by Lawrence Bishop and Norman Walters, Iquitos, Peru—is located above the confluence of the Rio Ucuyali, with the following actual location: Yacumama Lodge [YACU], on the Rio Yurapa (ca 30 km upstream from Rio Ucuyali, lat 4° 48′ S, long 73° 30′ W).

Specimens were collected over an 11-y period by 20 teams of Earthwatch volunteers (each team comprising the collecting efforts of 11 to 17 persons, supervised by D. A. Nickle and J. L. Castner). Collecting dates for each team are as follows: Team 1 (XI.1–18.1986); Team 2 (II.1–14.1987); Team 3 (II.14–28.1987); Team 4 (VII.1–14.1987); Team 5 (VII.15–28.1987); Team 7 (VIII.5–19.1989); Team 8 (VIII.19-IX.1.1989); Team 9 (VI.23-VII.14.1990); Team 11 (X.3–17.1990); Team 13 (VI.22-VII.6.1991); Team 14 (VIII.8–22.1992); Team 15 (VIII.22-IX.3.1992); Team 16 (VIII.5–20.1994); Team 17 (VIII.20-IX.3.1994); Team 19 (VII.29-VIII.12.1995); Team 20 (VIII.17–31.1996); Team 21 (VIII.31-IX.14.1996); Team 22 (VII.26-VIII.9.1997); Team 23 (VIII.9–23.1997); Team 24 (VII.25-VIII.8.1998).

Specimens were collected both at ground level during nightly collecting forays along forest trails and from rainforest canopy samples obtained by fogging treetops with a mild pesticide (Resmethrin®, 0.5%). Three of the species described herein, along with P. teres, were collected only at ground level along trails (n = 53 specimens), and are probably understory species. The other 14 species were collected in fogging samples from tree canopies 10 to 30 m above ground level, and they are considered arboreal species. Of these species, only 3 arboreal taxa were collected sporadically at ground level over the 10-y period of study — maculata Nickle, n. sp. (n = 1 specimen of a total of 13 collected in the study), bimaculata Nickle, n. sp. (n = 1 out of 23), and orioni Nickle, n. sp. (1 of 2) — suggesting that it is unlikely that arboreal species will be found on a regular basis at ground level.

Specimens were measured (in mm) with a device described by Grant (1965), and characters used to evaluate species were essentially those detailed by Emsley et al. (1967). Measurements were defined as follows: total length, the distance between the frons and apex of the abdomen; length of pronotal disc, the median length of the disc from anterior to posterior margin; width of pronotal disc, the width across the posterior margin of the pronotum as the shortest distance between the two points at the base of the curvature of the posterior margin; length and width of both fore- and hindfemur, the greatest dimensions of those structures as seen in lateral view; length of tegmen, the length of the tegmen from its point of insertion at the mesothorax to its apex; width of tegmen, the greatest width across the tegmen; length of eye, the greatest length of the eye when viewed in lateral aspect; depth of eye, the dimension of the eye, also as seen in lateral aspect, as the greatest distance between ventral and dorsal margins; width of eye, as seen from above, the greatest distance between lateral margin and medial margin of eye; length of ovipositor, the distance from the apex of the ovipositor to the apex of the subgenital plate. The stridulatory file of males was examined only in species where more than 4 specimens were available in the collection. All teeth on the stridulatory file on the left tegmen were counted, and the straight-line distance between first and last tooth on the file recorded as the length of the file. Internal genitalia of males of several species could be seen without the aid of dissections and appeared to be quite complex in structure. However, no dissections were made at this juncture, because all species were easily recognizable without the need to examine internal structures. Internal genitalia should prove to be a useful set of characters when revisionary studies are eventually undertaken; because of the small representation of males in most of the species, it was considered best to wait to examine these structures.

List of neotropical species of Phlugis

Described species:

New species:

Group I

  • bullatinota Nickle, new species

Group II

  • lewisi Nickle, new species

  • orioni Nickle, new species

Group III

  • celerinicta Nickle, new species

  • chrysopoides Nickle, new species

  • gracila Nickle, new species

Group IV

  • bimaculatum Nickle, new species

  • bimaculoides Nickle, new species

  • stigmata Nickle, new species

Group V

  • arborea Nickle, new species

  • convexitermina Nickle, new species

  • gigantea Nickle, new species

  • glabra Nickle, new species

  • herculi Nickle, new species

  • maculata Nickle, new species

  • scalpra Nickle, new species

  • wittmani Nickle, new species

Key to species of Phlugis from Peruvian research sites

  1. 1 Forefemur with 3 spines on inner ventral margin

  2. 1′ Forefemur with 4 or 5 spines on inner ventral margin

  3. 2 Ventral margins of foretibia each with 4 moveable spines; ovipositor <3.8 mm (Fig. 70)

  4. 2′ Ventral margins of foretibia each with 5 moveable spines; ovipositor >4.0 mm

  5. 3 Outer and inner ventral margins of hindfemur with about 4 and 1 spines, respectively; dorsal margins of hindtibia usually with <25 spines; in ventral view incision of emargination of male subgenital plate >1/2 length of plate (Fig. 44); distal half of ovipositor broad, not significantly more narrow than basal half (Fig. 71); female subgenital plate as in Fig. 80

  6. 3′ Outer and inner ventral margins of hindfemur with about 10 and 4 spines, respectively; dorsal margins of hindtibia usually with >25 spines; in ventral view incision of emargination of male subgenital plate <1/2 length of plate; combination of female characters not as above

  7. 4 Male tenth tergite bilobed, with each lobe in turn being bilobed (Fig. 7); head about as long as wide; L/W of pronotum ≤1.9; ovipositor very long, >50 mm, apical half narrow and weakly upcurved (Fig. 72)

  8. 4′ Male tenth tergite truncate, apically unmodified; head longer than wide; L/W of pronotum ≥2.2; female unknown

  9. 5 Inner ventral margin of forefemur with 5 spines; large, slender species with elongated forelegs (> 6 mm) and pronotum (> 4 mm); male with metazona greatly inflated (Fig. 1); apical half of ovipositor broad, not significantly more narrow than basal half (Fig. 68); female subgenital plate as in Fig. 78

  10. 5′ Inner ventral margin of forefemur with 4 spines; smaller species with shorter forelegs (<4 mm) and pronotum (<4 mm); male with metazona at most weakly inflated (Fig. 2); combination of female characters not as above

  11. 6 Outer ventral margin of forefemur with 2 spines

  12. 6′ Outer ventral margin of forefemur with 3 to 4 spines

  13. 7 Male tegmen lacking black bands on anal margin behind stridulatory field; female tegmen with a single black band arising at base of anal margin; male cercus greatly elongated, cylindrical, tapering apically (Fig. 27); female cercus long and narrow and ovipositor as in Fig. 73; female subgenital plate as in Fig. 82

  14. 7′ Male tegmen with one black band on anal margin behind stridulatory field; female tegmen with two black bands along basal half of anal margin; male cercus short, with apex bilobed, lateral apical lobe apically pointed, median preapical lobe broad apically rounded; combination of female characters not as above

  15. 8′ Apex of male cercus with median lobe extending away from lateral lobe, resembling an opened crab claw (Fig. 25); female subgenital plate as in Fig. 81

  16. 8′ Apex of male cercus with median lobe closely adherent to lateral lobe, resembling a closed crab claw (Fig. 26); female similar to P. bimaculata

  17. 9 Outer ventral margin of forefemur with 4 spines

  18. 9′ Outer ventral margin of forefemur with 3 spines

  19. 10 Ventral margins of hindfemur with 6 to 11 preapical spines in both sexes; male cercus short, stout, with 2 sharp apical teeth and one rounded preapical lobe (Fig. 28)

  20. 10′ Ventral margins of hindfemur with 0–2 preapical spines in both sexes; male cercus elongated, gradually upcurved, apically armed with a cluster of setiform spines (Fig. 29)

  21. 11 Male subgenital plate with 2 true articulating styles

  22. 11′ Male subgenital plate with 2 non-articulating lobes divided by a deep medial apical emargination

  23. 12 Short-winged species, with tegmina and hind wings extending only to apex of abdomen (♂) or shorter (♀); ventral margins of hindfemur lacking preapical spines

  24. 12′ Long-winged species, with tegmina and hind wings extending 3 to 6 mm beyond apex of abdomen; ventral margins of hindfemur with 3 to 11 apical spines

  25. 13 Tenth tergite of male distally constricted, then expanded into two apically rounded and diverging lobes (Fig. 10); male cercus elongated, with apical fifth expanded into a dorsally combed inflation with a preapical ventral hooked process (Figs 30, 31); outer ventral margin of midtibia with 3 spines in both sexes; female subgenital plate as in Fig. 84

  26. 13′ Tenth tergite of male distally produced, apically rounded (Fig. 12); male cercus short, gradually incurved, with apex inflated into two rounded lobes (Figs 35, 36); outer ventral margin of midtibia with 2 spines; female unknown

  27. 14 Tenth tergite of male with rounded or pointed apex; females of all species unknown

  28. 14′ Tenth tergite of male with bilobed or modified bifid apex; female of 1 of 2 species with ovipositor >5 mm (Fig. 76), female of other species unknown

  29. 15 Tenth tergite of male greatly produced distally into a chisel-shaped elongation with parallel sides and rounded apex (Figs 13, 14)

  30. 15′ Tenth tergite of male moderately produced, sides gradually converging apically to a blunt point with minute teeth (Fig. 19)

  31. 16 Apex of tenth tergite of male modified into 2 elongated bilobed processes (Figs 15, 16); cercus simple cylindrical, tapering gradually into a point

  32. 16′ Apex of tenth tergite of male with a broad V-shaped emargination, producing 2 triangulate lobes (Figs 17, 18)

  33. 17 Male cercus short, stout, cylindrical, apically dorsoventrally flattened and terminating as a small median tooth (Figs 37, 38); subgenital plate of male as in Figs 52, 65; ovipositor >5 mm in length (Fig. 76); female subgenital plate as in Fig. 85

  34. 17′ Male cercus elongated, sinuate, basally cylindrical, becoming laterally flattened, recurving sharply both anteriorly and dorsally, as in Fig. 39; subgenital plate of male as in Figs 53, 66; female unknown

Group I— Species with 5 spines on each ventral margin of forefemur: P. bullatinotum.

Phlugis bullatinotum Nickle, new species (Figures 1, 4, 20–21, 41, 55, 68, 78, 86)

Diagnosis.— This is the longest species of the genus, but it is also the most slender species, with greatly elongated fore- and midlegs. It differs from all other species by the presence of 5 spines on each ventral margin of the forefemur and in males by the greatly expanded metazona (somewhat less expanded in females) and arched tegmina.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: INN, Team 8.

Allotype.— ♀. Same data as holotype.

Paratypes.— 7 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀, 3 nymphs: INN, Team 4, 1 ♂; Team 5, 1 ♂; LODGE: Team 7, 1 ♀; Team 8, 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 1 nymph; Team 11, 1 ♀; Team 24, 1 ♂; CAMP: Team 8, 1 ♂; Team 11, 1 nymph; ACEER: Team 18, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 nymph; YACU: Team 16, 1 ♀.

Description.—

Head: Narrow for genus, from above longer than wide; eyes prominent, globose to ellipsoidal, greatest length along anteroposterior axis; in side view front of face concave; ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ranging from 1.32:1 to 1.34:1.

Thorax: Pronotum sexually dimorphic; 3.47 to 3.59× longer than wide in male and 2.29 to 2.36× longer than wide in female; metazona greatly inflated in male (Fig. 1), considerably more weakly so in female; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc behind midpoint but anteriad of posterior 1/3 of length in male and at posterior 1/5 of length in female; anterior margin weakly concave, hindmargin weakly convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.92 to 1.98 (♂), 2.30 to 2.34 (♀).

Legs: Forelegs: Femur slender, elongated, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W 7.3 to 8.3; both inner and outer ventral margins with 5 spines; tibia with ventral spines very long (inner spines somewhat longer than corresponding outer spines), somewhat evenly spaced, with 5 elongated spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur elongated, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with two outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 7.8 to 8.7.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 1. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0 to 1; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 23 to 33; outer (anterior) 19 to 26.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed, sexually dimorphic; in male, tegmina greatly arched in repose, tapering gradually posteriorly; left tegmen with thickened elevated edge behind stridulatory field; in female tegmina not arched. Tegmen in both sexes extending 3 to 5 mm beyond tip of abdomen; hind wing extending 6 to 8 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file of single specimen examined with 71 teeth, 1.19 mm in length (Fig. 86).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite weakly produced, apex broadly and shallowly emarginate, resulting in a shallow triangulate projection over the base of each cercus (Fig. 4). Cercus basally simple, cylindrical, apically expanded into a primary lateral lobe and a secondary, broad, flanged medial lobe (Figs 20–21). Subgenital plate basally spatulate, apex with a broad, shallow, U-shaped emargination and 2 widely spaced, elongated, ventroposteriorly-directed articulating styles (Figs 41, 55). ♀. Terminal tergite truncate. Cercus simple, cylindrical, elongated, fully 1/2 as long as ovipositor. Ovipositor robust for genus, as in Fig. 68. Subgenital plate spatulate, apically somewhat truncate (Fig. 78).

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens, with well defined post-ocular greenish bands present on all specimens (including faded preserved specimens); a creamy whitish green band extending full length of median line of pronotal disc; apices of antennal annuli distinctively dark banded; tips of spines on fore- and hindlegs light brown.

Measurements.— (means, range) in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=8) 24.6, 22.8 to 26.3; ♀ (n=8) 27.9, 25.3 to 29.1; length pronotum: ♂ 4.5, 4.2 to 4.9; ♀ 4.0, 3.9 to 4.3; width pronotum: ♂ 2.3, 2.1 to 2.4; ♀ 1.7, 1.5 to 1.8; length forefemur: ♂ 6.2, 6.0 to 6.4; ♀ 6.5, 6.4 to 6.6; length midfemur: ♂ 5.8, 5.6 to 5.9; ♀ 6.3, 6.1 to 6.6; length hindfemur: ♂ 13.0, 12.5 to 13.2; ♀ 13.6, 13.3 to 13.8; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.5, 1.4 to 1.7; ♀ 1.7, 1.5 to 1.8; length tegmen: ♂ 12.9, 12.5 to 13.2; ♀ 15.3, 14.9 to 15.6; width tegmen: ♂ 2.2, 2.0 to 2.4; ♀: 2.1, 1.8 to 2.2; eye length: ♂ 1.2, 1.1 to 1.4; ♀ 1.3, 1.1 to 1.4; eye width: ♂ 0.8, 0.7 to 0.9; ♀ 0.9, 0.8 to 1.0; eye depth: ♂ 1.0, 0.9 to 1.1; ♀ 1.0, 0.9 to 1.2; length ovipositor: 4.7, 4.2 to 4.8.

Etymology.— noun (Latin) bullatus — inflated, and notum — shield, referring to the inflated metanotum found only on this species.

Group II— Species with 4 spines on each ventral margin of forefemur: P. lewisi and P. orioni.

Phlugis lewisi Nickle, new species (Figures 29, 74)

Diagnosis.— This species is most similar to P. orioni, both having 4 spines on each ventral margin of the forefemur. Differing from P. orioni in the shape of the male cercus and shape of female subgenital plate.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 7.

Allotype.— ♀. Same data as holotype.

Paratypes.—1 ♂, 1 ♀. Same data as holotype.

Description.—

Head: Moderately broad for genus, from above wider than long. Eyes prominent, globose, only slightly longer than deep. Ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ca 1.24:1 (♂) to 1.28:1 (♀).

Thorax: Pronotum 2.2 to 2.9× longer than wide; metazona of male weakly inflated, that of female not inflated; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc at just posterior to midpoint in male and at posterior 1/3 of pronotal length in female; anterior margin truncate, hindmargin weakly convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.7 to 1.9.

Legs: Genicular lobes of all legs unarmed. Forelegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W 5.4 to 5.9; inner ventral margin with 4 spines, outer ventral margin with 4 spines; tibia with ventral spines long (inner spines somewhat longer than corresponding outer spines), somewhat evenly spaced, with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 2 outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 6.7 to 7.0, ventral margins usually unarmed. Tibia unarmed ventrally.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 4; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0 to 1; outer (anterior) 0. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 25 to 30; outer (anterior) 22 to 26.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed; tegmen extending 2 to 4 mm beyond tip of abdomen; hind wing extending 4 to 6 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite distally produced, apically bilobed. Cercus elongated, recurved dorso-medially along its length, with lateral margin gradually expanded just beyond midpoint into an expanded tooth; cercus becoming flattened from tooth area to preapex, then becoming rounded in cross-section to apex; apex with a cluster of small, pigmented setiform teeth (Fig. 29). Subgenital plate damaged and distorted in both holotype and paratype, but appearing to be spatuale basally, narrowing distally with 2 elongated articulating true styles. ♀. Terminal tergite truncate. Cercus short, cylindrical less than 1/2 as long as ovipositor. Distal half of ovipositor slender, elongated for genus, as in Fig. 74. Subgenital plate spatulate, apically rounded with a shallow U-shaped emargination.

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens.

Measurements.—in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=2) 21.6, 21.4 to 21.9; ♀ (n=2) 23.7, 23.6 to 23.8; length pronotum: ♂ 3.61, 3.6 to 3.7; ♀ 3.3, 3.3 to .3.4; width pronotum: ♂ 2.0, 1.9 to 2.1; ♀1.8, 1.7 to 1.8; length forefemur: ♂ 4.0, 3.9 to 4.1; ♀ 4.0, 4.0 to 4.1; length midfemur: ♂ 4.3, 4.2 to 4.4; ♀ 4.6, 4.5 to 4.7; length hindfemur: ♂ 11.1, 10.8 to 11.4; ♀ NA; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.6, 1.6; ♀ NA; length tegmen: ♂ 12.2, 12.0 to 12.3; ♀ 13.7, 13.4 to 13.9; width tegmen: ♂ 1.7, 1.6 to 1.8; ♀: 1.8, 1.7 to 1.8; eye length: ♂ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.4; ♀ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.4; eye width: ♂ 0.8, 0.8; ♀ 0.8, 0.8 to 0.9; eye depth: ♂ 0.9, 0.9 to 1.0; ♀ 0.9, 0.9 to 1.0; length ovipositor: 5.3, 5.2 to 5.5.

Etymology.— A patronym, for Dr. Jon A. (Buck) Lewis, one of my trusted staff members, in appreciation of his dedication to the project and of his friendship under harsher conditions when we were on the northern border of Peru in an earlier expedition with the Smithsonian Institution.

Phlugis orioni Nickle, new species (Figures 28, 47, 62)

Diagnosis.— Based on numbers of spines on the ventral margins of the forefemur (4 inner, 4 outer), this species is most similar to P. lewisi. Male cerci of both species, however, are distinctive (cf Figs. 28, 29). Females are indistinguishable and are associated with conspecific males on the basis of collection proximity.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: INN. Team 15.

Allotype.— ♀. LODGE. Team 15.

Paratypes.—1 ♀. LODGE: Team 22. Fogging site 7, secondary. 1 ♀.

Description.—

Head: Narrow for genus, from above longer than wide. Eyes prominent, ellipsoidal. In side view front of face concave. Ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ca 1.34:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.7 to 3.0× longer than wide; metazona not inflated in either sex; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc at posterior 1/3 of length; anterior margin truncate, hindmargin weakly convex; L/W pronotal disc 2.04 to 2.17.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur relatively long, slender, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W 5.4 to 5.5; both inner and outer ventral margins with 4 spines; tibia with ventral spines long (inner spines somewhat longer than corresponding outer spines), somewhat evenly spaced, with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 2 outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.7 to 6.1; armed ventrally with 6 to 8 inner and 9 to 11 outer ventral spines; tibia unarmed ventrally but with 19 to 22 spines on inner dorsal margin and 21 to 23 on outer dorsal margin.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 4; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 6–8; outer (anterior) 9–11. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 19 to 22; outer (anterior) 21 to 23.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed; tegmen extending 3 to 5 mm beyond tip of abdomen; hind wing extending 3 to 4 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite weakly produced, with a shallow medioapical U-shaped emargination. Cercus simple, stout, cylindrical, apically terminating as 3 closely adherant lobes: 2 lobes dark pigmented, flattened, apically sharp and 1 lobe unpigmented, rounded, apically blunt (Fig. 28). Subgenital plate spatulate, narrowing gradually distally, apical margin with a shallow U-shaped emargination bordered on each side with 2 elongated articulating styles (Figs 47, 62). ♀: Terminal tergite weakly produced, apically truncate. Cercus simple, cylindrical, less than 1/2 as long as ovipositor. Distal half of ovipositor slender, elongated for genus. Subgenital plate spatulate, elongated, tapering gradually distally, apex with a minute U-shaped emargination.

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens, with no well defined darkly pigmented structures.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=1) 21.6, 21.4 to 21.9; ♀ (n=2) 23.7, 23.6 to 23.8; length pronotum: ♂ 3.61, 3.6 to 3.7; ♀ 3.3, 3.3 to 3.4; width pronotum: ♂ 2.0, 1.9 to 2.1; ♀ 1.8, 1.7 to 1.8; length forefemur: ♂ 4.0, 3.9 to 4.1; ♀ 4.0, 4.0 to 4.1; length midfemur: ♂ 4.3, 4.2 to 4.4; ♀ 4.6, 4.5 to 4.7; length hindfemur: ♂ 11.1, 10.8 to 11.4; ♀ NA; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.6, 1.6; ♀ NA; length tegmen: ♂ 12.2, 12.0 to 12.3; ♀ 13.7, 13.4 to 13.9; width tegmen: ♂ 1.7, 1.6 to 1.8; ♀: 1.8, 1.7 to 1.8; eye length: ♂ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.4; ♀ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.4; eye width: ♂ 0.8, 0.8; ♀ 0.8, 0.8 to 0.9; eye depth: ♂ 0.9, 0.9 to 1.0; ♀ 0.9, 0.9 to 1.0; length ovipositor: 5.3, 5.2 to 5.5.

Etymology.— A patronym for Orion, the mythological hunter placed into the night sky by the goddess Artemis.

Group III— Species with 3 inner and 4 outer ventral spines on forefemur: P. chrysopoides, P. celerinicta, P. gracila, P. teres.

Phlugis celerinicta Nickle, new species (Figures 2, 3, 5, 24, 44, 58, 71, 80, 87)

Diagnosis.— Most similar to P. teres, differing from it in following characters: 5 (instead of 4) spines on each ventral margin of foretibia, longer male cercus, forelegs more elongated, and greater depth of apical incision of male subgenital plate.

Holotype.—♂. Peru: LODGE. Team 13.

Allotype.— ♀. LODGE. Team 19.

Paratypes.— 12 ♂♂, 20 ♀♀: LODGE: Team 1, 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Team 3, 1 ♀; Team 5, 1 ♂; Team 7, 1 ♀; Team 8, 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; Team 9, 1 ♀; Team 13, 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Team 14, 1 ♀; Team 17, 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Team 19, 2 ♀♀; Team 20, 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; Team 21, 3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀. INN: Team 2, 2 ♀♀; Team 3, 1 ♂; Team 5, 1 ♀.

Description.—

Head: Narrow for genus, from above longer than wide; eyes prominent, ellipsoidal; ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ca 1.31:1.00.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.5 to 2.9× longer than wide; metazona very weakly inflated; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc at posterior 1/3 of length in male and at posterior quadrant in female (Figs 2–3); anterior margin weakly concave, hindmargin weakly convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.97 to 2.22.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur relatively long, slender, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W 6.84 to 7.29; tibia with ventral spines long (inner spines somewhat longer than corresponding outer spines), somewhat evenly spaced, with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 2 outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 7.7 to 8.1.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 3; outer (posterior) 4; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0 to 1; outer (anterior) 2 to 5. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 20 to 25; outer (anterior) 16 to 20.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed; tegmen extending 4 to 7 mm beyond tip of abdomen; hind wing extending 5 to 6 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file of single specimen examined with 62 teeth, 1.23 mm in length (Fig. 87).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite weakly produced distally, medially cleft with inner margins recoiling beneath ventral surface (Fig. 4). Cercus simple, cylindrical, without additional lobes, less than 1/2 length of subgenital plate (Fig. 24). Subgenital plate basally spatulate, tapering posteriorly and very elongated, medially deeply incised from basal third of its overall length to apex, forming two non-articulating, closely appressed pseudostyles (Fig. 44); in lateral view ventral margin of distal half and dorsal margin of distal 1/3 gradually inflated (Fig. 58). ♀. Terminal tergite truncate. Cercus short, cylindrical less than 1/2 as long as ovipositor. Ovipositor robust, as in Fig. 71. Subgenital plate spatulate, apically rounded (Fig. 80).

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Apices of antennal annuli distinctively dark banded. Hind tarsi dark brown. Tips of spines on fore- and hindlegs light brown.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=10) 22.1, 20.9 to 23.3; ♀ (n=10) 24.8, 22.2 to 25.9; length pronotum: ♂ 3.7, 3.5 to 3.9; ♀ 3.6, 3.3 to 3.9; width pronotum: ♂1.9, 1.7 to 2.1; ♀ 1.6, 1.5 to 1.8; length forefemur: ♂ 5.0, 4.7 to 5.2; ♀ 5.4, 5.0 to 5.7; length midfemur: ♂ 5.1, 5.0 to 5.3; ♀ 5.3, 5.1 to 5.6; length hindfemur: ♂ 12.0, 11.8 to 12.4; ♀ 12.2, 12.0 to 12.4; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.6, 1.5 to 1.9; ♀ 1.5, 1.3 to 2.0; length tegmen: ♂ 12.5, 12.4 to 12.6; ♀ 14.7, 13.1 to 14.9; width tegmen: ♂ 1.7, 1.6 to 1.8; ♀: 2.4, 1.8 to 2.6; eye length: ♂ 1.2, 1.1 to 1.3; ♀ 1.3, 1.1 to 1.5; eye width: ♂ 0.7, 0.6 to 0.9; ♀ 0.9, 0.7 to 1.1; eye depth: ♂ 0.9, 0.7 to 1.1; ♀ 1.0, 0.9 to 1.3; length ovipositor: 4.6, 4.1 to 4.7.

Etymology.— (Latin) adjective, celer – swift, and nictus – a winking, “quick as a wink”, referring to this species' quick movements in avoiding capture when spotted during the day.

Phlugis chrysopoides Nickle, new species (Figures 7, 60, 72; [P. chrysopa: 88])

Diagnosis.— Slender species with narrow elongated head. Most similar to P. teres, P. chrysopa (a Central American species), P. celerinicta, and P. gracila by having 3 inner and 4 outer ventral spines on forefemur. Differing from these primarily in shape of male subgenital plate (Fig. 60, cf Figs 57–59). Morphologically most similar to P. chrysopa, the two species differing in degree of development of apical lobes of male tenth tergite (Figs 6, 7), male subgenital plate (cf Figs 59, 60), and ovipositor (cf Figs 72, 77).

Holotype.— ♂. PERU: CAMP. Team 20.

Allotype.— ♀. PERU: LODGE. Team 24. Fogging site 2.

Description.—

Head: Narrow for genus, from above, longer than wide; eyes prominent, ellipsoidal, greatest length along anteroposterior axis; ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind compound eyes 1.26:1 to 1.40:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.33 to 2.51× longer than wide; metazona of pronotum very weakly inflated; metazonal suture located at about posterior third of pronotal disc; anterior margin of pronotal disc weakly concave, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.82 to 1.85.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur short, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/W 4.80; tibia with 5 spines on each margin. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 6.23.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 3; outer (posterior) 4; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 3 to 5; outer (anterior) 9 to 11. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, hindtibia: inner (posterior) 28 to 29; outer (anterior) 27 to 29.

Wings: Tegmina and wings elongated, tegmen extending ca 3 to 6 mm beyond apex of abdomen, hind wing extending 3 to 6 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined in unique male specimen, but in related species P. chrysopa a single specimen was examined with 37 teeth, 0.49 mm in length (Fig. 88).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite weakly produced, strongly declivent, apically medially cleft, with 2 well developed bilobe projections encircling cerci (Fig. 7, cf Fig. 6). Cercus simple, cylindrical, lacking modifications, tapering gradually, its total length ca half of that of subgenital plate. Subgenital plate elongated, spatulate, apically medially narrowly emarginate 1/3 of length, producing 2 laterally flattened triangulate lobes, and with a ventral median keel expanding just anteriad of emargination; in lateral view, dorsal margin of expanded lobe with a broadened tooth (Fig. 60, cf Fig. 59). ♀. Terminal tergite truncate. Ovipositor elongated, apical half narrow, weakly upurved along its length (Fig. 72). Cerci nearly half as long as ovipositor.

Color: Uniformly light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Apices of spines on legs light brown.

Measurements.— (in mm). Total length: ♂ (n=1) 21.64; ♀ (n=1) 19.39; length pronotum: ♂ 3.19; ♀ 3.16; width pronotum: ♂ 1.72; ♀ 1.74; length forefemur: ♂ 3.24; ♀ 3.36; length midfemur: ♂ 3.85; ♀ 3.87; length hindfemur: ♂ 9.65; ♀ NA; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.55; ♀ NA; length tegmen: ♂12.31; ♀ 12.38; width tegmen: ♂ 1.60; ♀: 1.78; eye length: ♂ 1.14; ♀ 1.38; eye width: ♂ 0.76; ♀ 0.85; eye depth: ♂ 0.86; ♀ 1.11; length ovipositor: 5.12

Etymology.— (Latin), noun, — oides — similar to, like, referring to resemblance of this species to the Central American species P. chrysopa.

Phlugis gracila Nickle, new species (Figures 22, 42, 56)

Diagnosis.— Slender, elongated species with narrow elongated head. Most similar to P. teres, P. celerinicta, and P. chrysopoides by having 3 inner and 4 outer ventral spines on forefemur. Differing from these primarily in shape of male subgenital plate (Figs 42, 56).

Holotype.— ♂. PERU: INN. Team 4. Known only from holotype.

Description.—

Head: Narrow for genus, from above, longer than wide; eyes prominent, ellipsoidal, greatest length along anteroposterior axis; ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind compound eyes 1.58:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.76× longer than wide; metazona of pronotum very weakly inflated; metazonal suture located at about posterior third of pronotal disc; anterior margin of pronotal disc weakly concave, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 2.25.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/W 5.61; tibia with 5 spines on each margin. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 7.2.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 3; outer (posterior) 4; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 3 to 5; outer (anterior) 10 to 11. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, hindtibia: inner (posterior) 28 to 29; outer (anterior) 27 to 29.

Wings: Tegmina and wings greatly elongated, tegmen extending ca 3 mm beyond apex of abdomen, hind wing extending 6 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined in unique male specimen.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite weakly produced, apically medially cleft, with medial edges deflected ventrally. Cercus simple, cylindrical, lacking modifications, tapering gradually, its total length ca half of that of subgenital plate (Fig. 22). Subgenital plate elongated, spatulate, apically medially narrowly emarginate 1/3 of length, and with a ventral median keel expanding just anteriad of emargination (Fig. 42); in lateral view, basal third of each dorsolateral margin expanded as a small broadened tooth, posterior third expanded into a complex, apically bilobed inflation, its dorsal margin convex terminating anteriorly in a well developed blunt tooth (Fig. 56). ♀. Unknown.

Color: Uniformly light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Apices of spines on legs light brown.

Measurements.—(in mm). Total length: 27.10; length pronotum: 3.67; width pronotum: 1.33; length forefemur: 3.90; length midfemur: 4.52; length hindfemur:11.72; width hindfemur: 1.62; length tegmen: 15.31; width tegmen: 1.68; eye length: 1.28; eye width: 0.76; eye depth: 0.99; head width: 1.81.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, gracila – thin, slender, referring to the elongated, narrow habitus of this species.

Phlugis teres (DeGeer 1773) (Figures 23, 43, 57, 70, 79)

Diagnosis.— Slender, elongated species with narrow elongated head. Most similar to P. gracila, P. celerinicta, and P. chrysopoides by having 3 inner and 4 outer ventral spines on forefemur. Differing from other species herein described by having 4 spines on inner and 4 spines on outer ventral margins of foretibia, compared with 5 on each. Differing from P. gracila, P. celerinicta, and P. chrysopoides primarily in shape of male subgenital plate (Figs 43, 57).

Specimens examined.— 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 1 nymph: Peru: INN, Team 1. 1 ♂, 1 ♀; LODGE, Team 16, 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; ACEER, Team 18, 1 nymph.

Redescription.—

Head: Similar to P. gracila, except in size and eyes being less antero-posteriorly elongated; ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind compound eyes 2.88:1 to 2.93:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.10–2.15× longer than wide; metazona slightly inflated in male, not inflated in female; metazonal suture dividing pronotum just posterior to midpoint; anterior margin weakly truncate, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.71 to 1.75.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur elongated, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/W 4.78 to 4.89; tympana fully exposed; tibia with only 4 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.75 to 5.82.

Numbers of spines on legs: [both sexes] Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 3; outer (posterior) 4; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 4 to 8; outer (anterior) 5 to 11. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 4; midtibia inner (posterior) 1 to 2; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 21 to 25; outer (anterior) 24 to 26.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed; tegmen extending 4 to 5 mm beyond apex of abdomen; hind wings extending ca 5 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite produced distally, apically bilobed. Cercus simple, cylindrical, without additional lobes, less than 1/4 total length of subgenital plate (Fig. 23). Subgenital plate spatulate, elongated, apically deeply incised nearly to 1/2 of total length of subgenital plate (Fig. 43); in lateral view, greatly elongated, sinuate, keel on ventral margin expanded basally and at midpoint (Fig. 57). ♀. Tenth tergite produced, apically bilobed. Cercus short, cylindrical, about 1/3 as long as ovipositor. Ovipositor short, robust for genus, as in Fig. 70. Subgenital plate apically rounded (Fig. 79).

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Compound eyes uniformly green in vivo. Light brown apices of spines on hindlegs only.

Measurements.— (means, range) in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=2) 21.8, 20.2 to 22.2; ♀ (n=2) 22.3, 22.1 to 23.1; length pronotum: ♂ 2.9, 2.7 to 3.0; ♀ 3.0, 2.9 to 3.1; width pronotum: ♂ 1.8, 1.7 to 2.0; ♀ 1.7, 1.4 to 1.9; length forefemur: ♂ 3.4, 3.0 to 3.6; length midfemur: ♂ 3.8, 3.5 to 3.9; ♀ 4.1, 3.9 to 4.3; length hindfemur: ♂ 10.3, 10.0 to 10.4; ♀ 10.7, 10.3 to 11.1; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.7, 1.6 to 1.9; ♀ 1.7, 1.6 to 2.1; length tegmen: ♂ 12.2, 12.1 to 12.4; ♀ 14.3, 13.8 to 14.2; width tegmen: ♂ 1.6, 1.4 to 1.9; ♀: 1.7, 1.6 to 1.8; eye length: ♂ 1.3, 1.3 to 1.5; ♀ 1.2, 1.1 to 1.4; eye width: ♂ 0.8, 0.7 to 0.9; ♀ 0.8, 0.7 to 0.9; eye depth: ♂ 0.8, 0.8 to 0.9; ♀ 0.8, 0.7 to 1.0; length ovipositor: 3.4, 3.2 to 3.7.

Group IV— Species with 4 inner and 2 outer spines on ventral margins of forefemur: P. bimaculata, P. bimaculoides, P. stigmata.

Phlugis bimaculata Nickle, new species (Figures 8, 25, 45, 61, 73, 81)

Diagnosis.— Macropterous but shorter-winged species, with distinctive color patterns. Most similar to P. bimaculoides and P. stigmata by having 4 inner and 2 outer ventral spines on forefemur. Differing from these primarily in shapes of male cerci (cf Figs 25–27) and color patterns on the tegminal margins.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 2.

Allotype.— ♀. LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 5.

Paratypes.— 11 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀: LODGE: Team 21, 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Team 22, Fogging sites 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7 (secondary), 8 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀; Team 23, Fogging site 13, 1 ♀; Team 24, Fogging site 3 (secondary), 1 ♂.

Description.— Head: Moderately broad for genus, from above wider than long. Eyes prominent, globose, only slightly longer than deep. Ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ca 1.38:1 (♂) to 1.40:1 (♀).

Thorax: Pronotum 2.2 to 2.4× longer than wide; metazona of male moderately inflated, that of female not inflated; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc at posterior 3/5 of pronotal length in male and at posterior 1/3 in female; anterior margin weakly concave, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc ca 1.7.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur relatively short, robust, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W ca 4.5 to 4.8; inner ventral margin with 4 spines, outer ventral margin with 2 spines; tibia with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur short, robust, basal half inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 2 large outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.7.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 2; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 26 to 33; outer (anterior) 26 to 32.

Wings: Macropterous, but tegmina and hind wings extending only to about apex of terminal abdominal tergites; hind wing extending only about 1 to 2 mm apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Posterior margin of tenth tergite with a broad, apical U-shaped emargination, producing two triangulate lobes (Fig. 8). Cercus complex in structure, consisting of 3 lobes: apex claw-like, with an apical brown or black pigmented pointed lateral lobe and a smaller unpigmented apically rounded median lobe, and on median ventral margin near base of cercus, a broad, dorso-ventrally flattened, apically convex lobe (Fig. 25). Subgenital plate basally broad, spatulate, with a shallow apical V-shaped emargination, and two elongated, apically expanded true styles (Figs 45, 61). ♀. Terminal tergite weakly produced, apically truncate. Cercus elongated, slender, cylindrical, about 1/2 as long as ovipositor. Ovipositor elongated, distal half slender, in lateral view as in Fig. 73. Subgenital plate spatulate, apically bilobed and rounded, with a smaller rounded lobe on each lateral margin (Fig. 81).

Color: Light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens with numerous brown markings, as follows: scape and first antennal annulus green but distal half of subsequent annuli light brown; lateral face of foretibia, fore- and midtibal spines, and all tarsi dark brown; apical half of midtibia and most of hindtibia light castaneous brown; spines on hindtibia dark brown; anal margin of tegmen on female with 2 blackened edges, one about 2 mm in length at midregion of anal margin, the other about 1 mm in length arising at base of tegmen just behind posterior margin of pronotum; anal margin of male tegmen with only one blackened edge about 2 mm in length arising at stridulatory field and extending distally; in female apical half of ovipositor brown and tip of cercus black.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=10) 13.0, 12.3 to 13.3; ♀ (n=10) 13.9, 13.3 to 14.3; length pronotum: ♂ 3.0, 2.8 to 3.1; ♀ 3.2, 2.9 to 3.4; width pronotum: ♂ 1.6, 1.4 to 1.8; ♀ 1.9, 1.7 to 2.2; length forefemur: ♂ 3.2, 2.9 to 3.4; ♀ 3.5, 3.4 to 3.9; length midfemur: ♂ 3.8, 3.6 to 4.2; ♀ 4.0, 3.8 to 4.2; length hindfemur: ♂ 10.8, 10.4 to 10.9; ♀11.6, 11.2 to 11.9; width hindfemur: ♂1.9, 1.7 to 2.1; ♀2.0, 1.8 to 2.2; length tegmen: ♂ 8.9, 8.6 to 9.1; ♀ 9.7, 9.5 to 10.1; width tegmen: ♂ 1.2, 0.9 to 1.3; ♀: 1.5, 1.3 to 1.7; eye length: ♂ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.5; ♀ 1.5, 1.4 to 1.7; eye width: ♂ 0.9, 0.8 to 1.0; ♀ 1.0, 0.8 to 1.1; eye depth: ♂ 1.0, 0.9 to 1.1; ♀ 1.2, 1.1 to 1.3; length ovipositor: 5.2, 5.1 to 5.4.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, bi – two, macula – spot, marking, referring to the two spots that are present on the margins of the tegmina of females that first made this recognizable from other arboreal species during the course of canopy fogging.

Phlugis bimaculoides Nickle, new species (Figures 8, 26, 61, 73, 81)

Diagnosis.— This is a sibling species closely resembling P. bimaculata, differing from P. bimaculata in having 3-lobed cercus, with apical two lobes appressed not open and divergent. The female of this species is indistinguishable from that of P. bimaculata.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru. ACEER. Team 24.

Allotype.— ♀. CAMP. Team 22. Fogging site 10.

Description.— Similar to P. bimaculata in all respects, except the following:

Abdomen: ♂. Cercus complex in structure, consisting of 3 lobes: apex claw-like, with an apical brown or black pigmented pointed lateral lobe closely appressed to a smaller unpigmented apically rounded median lobe, and a broad, dorso-ventrally flattened, apically convex lobe located on median ventral margin near base of cercus (Fig. 26). Subgenital plate basally broad, spatulate, with a shallow apical V-shaped emargination, and two elongated, apically expanded true styles; base of styles more similar to that of P. stigmata, more widely separated than in P. bimaculata (cf Figs 45, 46). ♀. Ovipositor similar to that of P. bimaculata (Fig. 73). Subgenital plate as in Fig. 81.

Measurements.— (in mm). Total length: ♂ (n=1) 21.64; ♀ (n=1) 19.39; length pronotum: ♂ 3.19; ♀ 3.16; width pronotum: ♂ 1.72; ♀ 1.74; length forefemur: ♂ 3.24; ♀ 3.36; length midfemur: ♂ 3.85;♀ 3.87; length hindfemur: ♂ 9.65; ♀ NA; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.55; ♀ NA; length tegmen: ♂ 12.31; ♀ 12.38; width tegmen: ♂ 1.60; ♀: 1.78; eye length: ♂ 1.14; ♀ 1.38; eye width: ♂ 0.76; female 0.85; eye depth: ♂ 0.86; ♀ 1.11; length ovipositor: 5.12.

Etymology.— (Latin), noun, bi – two, macula – spot, marking, -oides, like, similar to, referring to similarities this species shares with P. bimaculata.

Phlugis stigmata Nickle, new species (Figures 9, 27, 46, 73, 82)

Diagnosis.— Medium, robust katydids with tegmina concealing hind wings and extending only to tip of abdomen. A distinctive species resembling P. bimaculata and P. bimaculoides, all of which differ from other species in having 4 inner and 2 outer spines on ventral margins of forefemur. ♂FS Differing from both P. bimaculoides and P. bimaculus in having an enlarged, lanceolate, left mandible and an elongated, simple, cylindrical cercus (Fig. 27). ♀. Differing from both P. bimaculoides and P. bimaculus by having a single black marking on anal margin of tegmen at base just behind posterior margin of pronotum.

Holotype.— ♂. PERU: LODGE. Fogging site 3. Team 22.

Allotype.— ♀. Same data as holotype.

Paratypes.— 1 ♂, 1 ♀. Same data as holotype.

Description.—

Head: Robust for species of genus, head width beneath eyes 2.4 to 3.1 mm; eyes large, tumescent; ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind compound eyes 1.1:1 to 1.2:1; mandibles sexually dimorphic: male left mandible elongated, lanceolate, extending well beyond right margin of face from beneath labrum, causing dextral torsion of clypeus and labrum; female mandibles similar in shape, not excessively developed, concealed beneath clypeus and labrum.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.6 (♂) and 2.3 (♀)× longer than wide; L/W of disc 1.7 to 1.9; anterior margin truncate, posterior margin well rounded; in lateral view metazona weakly inflated in male, not inflated in female. Metazonal suture bisecting pronotum behind midpoint; ventral margin with a notch-like groove above prothoracic spiracle.

Legs: Forelegs: Basal 2/3 of femur inflated gradually tapering distally to apex; L/W 4.5 to 5.1; inner ventral margin with 4 spines, outer ventral margin with 2 spines. Tibia with 5 elongated ventral spines on each margin (medial spines somewhat longer than corresponding lateral spines), somewhat evenly spaced, most basal pair of spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally. Tibia with 2 spines on outer ventral margin and 0 on inner ventral margin. Hindlegs: Femur L/W 5.5 to 5.7, with 0 to 1 small preapical spine of lateral margin only. Tibia unarmed ventrally, but with 23 to 25 minute spines on each dorsal margin.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 2; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 1. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 23 to 25; outer (anterior) 23 to 25.

Wings: Tegmina short, in repose extending only to apex of tenth tergite (or slightly beyond) (0.2 to 2.4 mm, ♂; 0.0 to 0.5 mm, female); hind wings short, extending only 0.8 to 1.3 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite developed into two nodular, weakly declivent lobes; supra-anal plate also bilobed, nestled between two lobes of tenth tergite (Fig. 9). Cercus nearly 4X length of tenth tergite, elongated, sinuate, basally cylindrical, but becoming dorsoventrally flattened along its length, terminating apically as a narrow, laterally-directed tooth and with a short, medially-directed, dorsoventrally flattened papilliform lobe at its base near supra-anal plate (Fig. 27). Subgenital plate basally spatulate, with two well developed, dorsoventrally flattened, elongated styles with concave dorsal surfaces (Fig. 46).

♀. Tenth tergite truncate. Cercus nearly equal in length to flattened ovipositor blades, elongated, cylindrical, tapering apically to a point. Ovipositor basally inflated, blades narrow; as in Fig. 73. Subgenital plate spatulate, with a well defined medial carina, apically bilobed (Fig. 82).

Color: Light green in vivo (but deeper green than typical chartreuse green for most Phlugis species), light green to tan in preserved specimens. Dorsum of tegmen (in repose), distal 1/3 of hindfemur, and all of hindtibia tan. In female only, base of anal margin of left tegmen marked with a black patch.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=2) 14.5, 14.2 to 14.8; ♀ (n=2) 14.0, 13.9 to 14.1; length pronotum: ♂ 4.0, 3.7 to 4.2; ♀ 3.4, 3.3 to 3.4; width pronotum: ♂ 2.3, 2.2 to 2.3; ♀ 1.9, 1.8 to 2.0; length forefemur: ♂ 3.9, 3.7 to 4.0; ♀ 3.7, 3.6 to 3.9; length midfemur: ♂ 3.9, 3.4 to 4.5; ♀ 4.1, 4.1 to 4.2; length hindfemur: ♂ 12.0, 11.7 to 12.2; ♀ 11.5, 11.3 to 11.6; width hindfemur: ♂ 2.1, 2.1 to 2.2; ♀ 2.1, 2.0 to 2.1; length tegmen: ♂ 8.6, 8.5 to 8.7; ♀ 8.6, 8.5 to 8.7; eye length: ♂ 1.7, 1.6 to 1.8; ♀ 1.7, 1.6 to 1.7; eye width: ♂ 1.1, 1.0 to 1.1; ♀ 1.0, 1.0 to 1.1; eye depth: ♂ 1.2, 1.1 to 1.2; ♀ 1.3, 1.2 to 1.3; length ovipositor: 4.9, 4.7 to 5.0.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, stigma – mark, referring to the large single black mark on the dorsum of the tegmen in repose.

Group V— Species with 4 inner and 3 outer spines on ventral margins of forefemur: P. arborea, convexitermina, glabra, gigantea, hercules, maculata, scalpra, wittmani.

Phlugis arborea Nickle, new species (Figures 10, 31–32, 49, 69, 84, 89)

Diagnosis.— Based on numbers of spines on the ventral margins of the forefemur (4 inner, 3 outer), this species is most similar to P. maculata, P. wittmani, P. scalpra, P. glabra, P. gigantea, P. herculi, and P. convexitermina, differing from them in having 3, instead of 2, spines on the outer ventral margin of the midtibia. Males of all of these species have different and easily recognizable cerci. Most similar in habitus to P. gigantea, P. herculi, and P. convexitermina, all of which are distinctive robust in form with broad heads and short, robust forelegs.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: INN. Team 23. Fogging site 11 (secondary), 8-12-97.

Allotype.— ♀. LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 6.

Paratypes.— 10 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, 1 nymph. INN, on trail at ground level, Team 22, 1 ♂; CAMP, Fogging site 2, Team 21, 1 ♂, 1 nymph; ACEER, Fogging site 19, Team 23, 1 ♂; LODGE, Fogging sites 3 and 7, Team 22, 5 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Fogging site 13, Team 23, 1 ♀; Fogging site 11, Team 24, 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀.

Description.—

Head: Large tumescent eyes rising above dorsum of head and extending forward of facial plane; with a well defined broad reddish band circum-orbiting above anteroposterior axis; in dorsal view ratio of width of head at compound eyes to width of head behind compound eyes 1.15 to 1.25.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.3 to 2.5× longer than wide; metazonal suture bisecting pronotum at midpoint; anterior margin weakly concave, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.6 to 1.7.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; median L/W 4.3 to 4.5; tibia with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 3 ventral spines on outer margin only. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.5.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 3 to 5; outer (anterior) 4 to 9. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 3; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 22 to 26; outer (anterior) 18 to 21.

Wings: Tegmina well developed, extending 3 to 5 mm beyond apex of cerci; hind wings extending 3 to 5 mm beyond apex of tegmina. Stridulatory file of single specimen examined unusually convoluted, with 3 arched areas; 64 teeth, 0.77 mm in length (Fig. 89).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite produced distally, abruptly narrowing preapically, and expanded apically into 2 digitiform lobes (Fig. 10). Cercus long, cylindrical for most of its length, gradually narrowing distally to preapex, then recurving laterad, equally narrow along its preapical length, with a minute, serrate medial margin, and with a small, dark, hook-like tooth arising on ventral margin just anteriad of preapical serrate portion of cercus (Figs 31 to 32). Subgenital plate spatulate, with 2 widely separated, elongated dorsoventrally flattened articulating styles (Fig. 49). ♀. Tenth tergite produced, narrowing into a blunted, thickened apical ridge. Cercus elongated, cylindrical, fully 1/2 length of ovipositor. Ovipositor as in Fig. 69. Subgenital plate spatulate, apically broad, truncate (Fig. 84).

Color: Light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Dark reddish to reddish-brown band circum-orbiting dorsal half of anteroposterior axis of eye.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=4) 21.2, 20.4 to 22.0; ♀ (n=4) 22.3, 20.9 to 23.8; length pronotum: ♂ 3.9, 3.8 to 4.0; ♀ 3.5, 3.4 to 3.6; width pronotum: ♂ 2.2, 2.0 to 2.4; ♀ 2.0, 1.9 to 2.2; length forefemur: ♂ 3.8, 3.6 to 3.9; ♀ 3.8, 3.6 to 4.1; length hindfemur: ♂ 10.8, 10.6 to 11.0; ♀ 10.8, 10.3 to 11.3; width hindfemur: ♂ 2.0, 1.8 to 2.1; ♀ 1.9, 1.8 to 2.1; length tegmen: ♂ 10.8, 10.6 to 11.1; ♀ 10.8, 10.3 to 11.3; eye length: ♂ 1.5, 1.5 to 1.6; ♀ 1.5, 1.5 to 1.6; eye width: ♂ 0.9, 0.8 to 0.9; ♀ 0.9, 0.9 to 1.0; eye depth: ♂ 1.1, 1.0 to 1.2; ♀ 1.1, 1.0 to 1.1; length ovipositor: 5.1, 4.6 to 5.7.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, arborea – of trees; this was the first new species to be recognized having an arboreal niche.

Phlugis convexitermina Nickle, new species (Figures 19, 40, 54, 67)

Diagnosis.— On the basis of 3 outer and 4 inner ventral spines on the forefemur, this species is most closely related to P. gigantea and P. herculi, differing from them by the shapes of the male tenth tergite (Fig. 19) and cercus (Fig. 40). The female of this species is unknown.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: LODGE. Team 24. Fogging site 5. Known only from holotype.

Description.—

Head: Robust, broad for genus, from above wider than long. Eyes prominent, ellipsoidal. Ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ca 1.1:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.17× longer than wide; metazona very weakly inflated; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc just posterior to midpoint; anterior margin truncate, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 2.17.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur short, robust, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W 4.41; inner ventral margin with 4 spines, outer ventral margin with 3 spines; tibia with ventral spines long (inner spines somewhat longer than corresponding outer spines), somewhat evenly spaced, with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 2 outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines.. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.30.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 1. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 21 to 23; outer (anterior) 28 to 29.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed; tegmen extending ca 3 mm beyond tip of abdomen; hind wing extending ca 5 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite elongated, produced distally, tapering apically to a point with minute spines at tip (Fig. 19). Cercus short, stout, basally cylindrical, apex expanded laterally into a very broad, medially-directed tooth; distal margin of cercus convoluted and thickened, with an additional thickened ridge arising at dorso-lateral preapical region and recurving into apical ridge at a right angle (Fig. 40). Subgenital plate greatly elongated, extending beyond tip of tenth tergite by length of cercus; apex deeply cleft, producing 2 nonarticulating apically toothed lobes (Figs 54, 67).

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Anal margin of tegmina brownish behind stridulatory field. Spines on dorsal margins of hindtibia dark brown.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: 24.46; length pronotum: 4.18; width pronotum: 2.60; length forefemur: 4.06; length midfemur: 4.49; length hindfemur: 11.77; width hindfemur: 2.22; length tegmen: 14.42; width tegmen: 2.15; eye length: 1.75; eye width: 1.02; eye depth: 1.30.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, convexus – arched outward, protuberant, terminus – end, referring to the unusual rounded, protuberant apex of the tenth tergite of the male of this species.

Phlugis gigantea Nickle, new species (Figures 17, 37–38, 52, 65, 76, 85, 90)

Diagnosis.— A very large, robust species closest in form to P. herculi and P. convexitermina. Males of all of these species have easily recognizable cerci. The female is identifiable by the shapes of the ovipositor and subgenital plate. Females of P. herculi and P. convexitermina are unknown.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: ACEER. Team 22. Fogging site 9.

Allotype.— ♀. ACEER. Team 24. Fogging site 11.

Paratypes.— 5 ♂♂, 1 ♀. ACEER. Team 22. Fogging site 10. 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀. Team 24. 2 ♂♂.

Description.—

Head: Large, broad, with prominent, nearly globose eyes; face in side view only weakly concave; ratio of width of head at compound eyes to width of head behind compound eyes 1.15 to 1.25:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.3 to 2.5× longer than wide; metazonal suture bisecting pronotum at midpoint; anterior margin weakly concave, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.6 to 1.7.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; median L/W 4.3 to 4.5; tibia with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 3 ventral spines on outer margin only. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.5.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 3 to 5; outer (anterior) 5 to 12. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 22 to 28; outer (anterior) 16 to 22.

Wings: Tegmina and hind wings well developed, tegmina extending 4 to 5 mm beyond apex of tenth tergite; hind wings extending 6 to 7 mm beyond apex of tegmina. Stridulatory file with 82 teeth, 0.91 mm in length (Fig. 90).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite produced distally, with a broad V-shaped emargination, producing two triangulate, apically finely tapered, gracile lobes (Fig. 17). Cercus short, stout, basally cylindrical, widening and becoming dorso-ventrally flattened distally, with a medially-directed preapical tooth on its disto-medial margin (Figs 37–38). Subgenital plate basally spatulate, apically greatly produced well beyond apex of tenth tergite, with a deep medial emargination extending nearly the length of subgenital plate, producing 2 nonarticulating, apically toothed lobes, each with a broad, weakly developed tooth arising on lateral face at nearly the same level as deepest extension of emargination (Figs 52, 65). ♀. Terminal tergite weakly produced, apically weakly bilobed. Cercus elongated, cylindrical, slightly greater than basal inflation of ovipositor. Ovipositor as in Fig. 76. Subgenital plate spatulate, apically narrowing gradually, truncate (Fig. 85).

Color: Light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Eyes dark reddish to reddish-brown on all specimens. Apical half of each antennal annulus banded dark brown. Tarsi and hindtibial spines dark brown.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=6) 21.2, 20.4 to 22.0; ♀(n=2) 22.3, 20.9 to 23.8; length pronotum: ♂ 3.9, 3.8 to 4.0; ♀ 3.5, 3.4 to 3.6; width pronotum: ♂ 2.2, 2.0 to 2.4; ♀ 2.0, 1.9 to 2.2; length forefemur: ♂ 3.8, 3.6 to 3.9; ♀ 3.8, 3.6 to 4.1; length hindfemur: ♂ 10.8, 10.6 to 11.0; ♀ 10.8, 10.3 to 11.3; width hindfemur: ♂ 2.0, 1.8 to 2.1; ♀ 1.9, 1.8 to 2.1; length tegmen: ♂ 10.8, 10.6 to 11.1; ♀ 10.8, 10.3 to 11.3; eye length: ♂ 1.3, 1.3 to 1.5; ♀ 1.2, 1.1 to 1.4; eye width: ♂ 0.8, 0.7 to 0.9; ♀ 0.8, 0.7 to 0.9; eye depth: ♂ 0.8, 0.8 to 0.9; ♀ 0.8, 0.7 to 1.0; length ovipositor: 5.1, 4.6 to 5.7.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, giga – large, grand, referring to the exceptionally large size of this robust species.

Phlugis glabra Nickle, new species (Figures 15–16, 51, 64, 91)

Diagnosis.— Based on numbers of spines on the ventral margins of the forefemur (4 inner, 3 outer), this species is most similar to P. maculata, P. wittmani, P. scalpra, P. arborea, P. gigantea, P., and P. convexitermina. Based on the male subgenital plate, it appears to be transitional between P. wittmani and P. arborea, on the one hand, with articulating styles, and P. gigantea, P. herculi, and P. convexitermina, on the other hand, all with greatly elongated subgenital plates having nonarticulating apically toothed lobes. The male tenth tergite, which is bilobed with each lobe in turn being apically bilobed, is unique for this species. The female is most similar to P. arboreaFS, the two being separated mainly by the number of spines on the outer ventral margin of the midtibia (3 in P. arborea, 2 in P. glabra).

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 5.

Allotype.— ♀. Same data as holotype.

Paratype.— 1 ♂. LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 2.

Description.—

Head: Large tumescent eyes rising above dorsum of head and extending forward of facial plane; with a well defined broad reddish band circum-orbiting above anteroposterior axis; in dorsal view ratio of width of head at compound eyes to width of head behind compound eyes 1.15 to 1.25.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.4 to 2.5× longer than wide; metazonal suture bisecting pronotum at midpoint; anterior margin weakly concave, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.7 to 1.8.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; median L/W 4.3 to 4.7; tibia with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 3 ventral spines on outer margin only. Hindlegs: Femur L/W 5.7 to 6.3.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 1 to 4; outer (anterior) 1 to 7. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 21 to 27; outer (anterior) 19 to 25.

Wings: Tegmina and hind wings well developed, tegmina extending 4.1 to 4.7 mm beyond apex of abdomen; hind wings extending 3.4 to 4.3 mm beyond apex of tegmina. Stridulatory file of single specimen examined with 76 teeth, 1.02 mm in length (Fig. 91).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite produced distally, apically split into two widely divergent, apically bilobed, weakly declivent lobes (Figs 15–16). Cercus small, well concealed beneath tenth tergite, recurved medially near apex and terminating as a sharp tooth. Subgenital plate basally spatulate, with 2 widely separated, elongated seemingly articulating styles; apex of styles flattened, folding in on itself, terminating as a dorso-medial tooth-like process (Figs 51, 64). ♀. All features similar to those of P. arborea.

Color: Light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Body appearing unusually glabrous and glossy, compared with other species of Phlugis. Apical 1/4 of antennal annuli dark brown. Tarsi and hindtibial spines light brown.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=2) 19.4, 19.3 to 19.5; ♀ (n=1) 19.7; length pronotum: ♂ 3.6, 3.5 to 3.7; ♀ 3.2; width pronotum: ♂ 2.0, 1.9 to 2.1; ♀ 1.9; length forefemur: ♂ 3.4, 3.2 to 3.7; ♀ 3.4; length hindfemur: ♂ 11.5, 11.2 to 11.8; ♀ 10.6; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.8, 1.7 to 1.9; ♀ 1.9; length tegmen: ♂ 12.0, 11.6 to 12.4; ♀ 11.9; length ovipositor: 4.4.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, glaber – bald, smooth, referring to the apparent shiny appearance of this species.

Phlugis herculi Nickle, new species (Figures 18, 39, 53, 66)

Diagnosis.— A robust species similar in form to P. convexitermina, P. arborea, and P. gigantea, sharing with them the presence of 4 inner and 3 outer spines on the ventral margins of the forefemur. Differing from them in having an extended bilobed tenth tergite of the male. The female is unknown for this species.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: Loreto Prov. ACEER. Team 24.

Paratype.— 1 ♀: ACEER, Team 24, Fogging site 10 secondary.

Description.—

Head: Robust, broad for genus, from above wider than long. Eyes prominent, ellipsoidal. Ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ca 1.11:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.2× longer than wide; metazona very weakly inflated; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc just posterior to midpoint; anterior margin truncate, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.7 to 1.8.

Legs: Genicular lobes of all legs unarmed. Forelegs: Femur short, robust, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W 4.3 to 4.7; inner ventral margin with 4 spines, outer ventral margin with 3 spines; tibia with ventral spines long (inner spines somewhat longer than corresponding outer spines), somewhat evenly spaced, with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 2 outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.1 to 5.8; armed ventrally with 1 spine near apex on outer margin only.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 1. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 26; outer (anterior) 23.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed; tegmen extending 3 to 4 mm beyond tip of abdomen; hind wing extending 5 to 6 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite elongated, produced distally, apex with a broad V-shaped emargination, resulting in 2 broad, apically rounded lobes (Fig. 18). Cercus basally cylindrical, distal half becoming laterally flattened, sinuate, recurving anteriorly, then dorsally, and terminating in a pointed apex (Fig. 39). Subgenital plate similar to that of P. convexitermina, greatly elongated, extending beyond tip of tenth tergite by length of cercus; apex deeply cleft, producing 2 nonarticulating apically toothed lobes (Figs 53, 66). ♀. Unknown.

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Spines on hindtibia and dorsal margins of foretibial spines dark brown. Anal margin of tegmina behind stridulatory field brownish.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=2) 24.8, 24.0 to 25.5; length pronotum: (n=1) 4.0, 4.0; width pronotum: (n=1) 2.3, 2.3; length forefemur: 4.3, 3.8 to 4.8; length midfemur: 4.3, 4.2 to 4.4; length hindfemur: 11.5, 11.3 to 11.66; width hindfemur: 2.2, 2.1 to 2.3; length tegmen: 15.0, 14.9 to 15.0; width tegmen: 2.2, 2.1 to 2.2; eye length: 1.7, 1.6 to 1.8; eye width: 1.0, 1.0 to 1.1; eye depth: 1.2, 1.2 to 1.3.

Etymology.— A powerful species named after Hercules, the [Greek and Roman] mythological son of Zeus and Alcmene, who was known for his great strength and unusual size; a patronym.

Phlugis maculata Nickle, new species (Figures 11, 30, 48, 75, 83)

Diagnosis.— Based on numbers of spines on the ventral margins of the forefemur (4 inner, 3 outer), this species is most similar to P. arborea, P. wittmani, P. scalpra, P. glabra, P. gigantea, P. herculi, and P. convexitermina. It differs from them in having short tegmina and wings, barely reaching the tip of the abdomen in the male and only to tergite IV in the female.

Holotype.— ♂. Peru: LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 3.

Allotype.— ♀. Same data as holotype.

Paratypes.— 2 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀, 1 nymph: INN: Team 8, 1 ♀; Team 22, Fogging site 1, 2 ♂♂; Lodge: Team 20, Fogging site 1, 2 ♀♀; Team 22, Fogging sites 4, 5, 2 ♀♀; Team 23, Fogging sites 14, 15, 16, 1 ♀, 1 nymph; Team 24, Fogging site 1, 1 ♀.

Description.—

Head: From above about as long as wide; eyes prominent, globose, only slightly longer than deep; in side view front of face concave; ratio of width of head at compound eyes as seen in dorsal view to width of head behind eyes ca 1.44:1 (♂) and 1.36:1 (♀).

Thorax: Pronotum ca 2.28 (♂) to 2.56× (♀) longer than wide; metazona inflated in male, not inflated in female; metazonal suture dividing pronotal disc at posterior 1/3 of length in male and at posterior quadrant in female; anterior margin truncate, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.60 to 1.68 [♂], 1.83 to 1.89 [♀].

Legs: Forelegs: Femur relatively short, somewhat robust, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; L/basal W 4.8 to 5.2; tibia with ventral spines shorter and less curved than those of other species (inner spines about twice as long as corresponding outer spines), somewhat evenly spaced, with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with two large outer ventral spines and 0 inner ventral spines. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.7 to 6.1.

Numbers of spines on legs:FS Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 27 to 37; outer (anterior) 24 to 36.

Wings: Macropterous in male, but tegmina and hindwings extending only to about apex of terminal abdominal tergites, somewhat shorter in female, extending at most only about half length of abdomen; hind wing extending only about 1 mm apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file not examined.

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite with a broad, apical U-shaped emargination, producing two medially recurved hook-shaped lobes (Fig. 11). Cercus complex, consisting of 3 lobes: a well developed apically-pointed, medially-directed apical lobe, a central medially-directed lobe located at midpoint of length of cercus, rounded from above but with a flanged extension beneath, and a basal, dorsally recurved, medially-directed, apically pointed lobe located at base of cercus (not easily seen in holotype) (Fig. 30). Subgenital plate basally spatulate, with 2 elongated articulating styles; styles 2X longer than basal portion of subgenital plate (Fig. 48). ♀. Terminal tergite weakly produced, apically truncate. Cercus elongated, cylindrical, about 1/2 as long as ovipositor. Ovipositor elongated, distal half slender, in lateral view as in Fig. 75. Subgenital plate spatulate, longer than wide, apically shallowly emarginate, developed into two thin lobes (Fig. 83).

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Apices of antennal annuli light brown banded; edges of tarsal lobes dark brown; bases and leading edges of foretarsal spines light brown; apical half of each tibial spine on hindlegs glossy brown; on females only, a blackened spot or maculation on anal margin of tegmen in repose, immediately behind posterior margin of pronotum.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=2) 9.2, 9.0 to 9.3; ♀(n=7) 9.7, 9.3 to 9.9; length pronotum: ♂ 2.7, 2.5 to 2.9; ♀ 3.0, 2.8 to 3.2; width pronotum: ♂ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.5; ♀1.6, 1.5 to 1.8; length forefemur: ♂ 3.0, 2.7 to 3.2; ♀ 3.6, 3.4 to 4.1; length midfemur: ♂ 3.4, 3.2 to 3.6; ♀ 3.8, 3.4 to 3.9; length hindfemur: ♂ 10.1, 9.8 to 10.4; ♀ 10.6, 10.2 to 10.9; width hindfemur: ♂ 1.6, 1.5 to 1.9; ♀ 1.9, 1.6 to 2.0; length tegmen: ♂ 4.9, 4.6 to 5.1; ♀ 5.2, 5.0 to 5.4; width tegmen: ♂ 1.0, 0.9 to 1.2; ♀: 1.1, 1.0 to 1.2; eye length: ♂ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.5; ♀ 1.4, 1.3 to 1.5; eye width: ♂ 0.9, 0.8 to 1.0; ♀ 0.9, 0.8 to 1.0; eye depth: ♂ 0.9, 0.7 to 1.1; ♀ 1.0, 0.9 to 1.2; length ovipositor: 4.2, 4.1 to 4.4.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, macula – spot, mark, referring to the single black spot on tegmina in repose.

Phlugis scalpra Nickle, new species (Figures 13–14, 33–34, 92)

Diagnosis.— A robust species with a broad head and short thickened forelegs, most similar to P. gigantea, P. herculi, and P. convexitermina, sharing with these species the number of spines on the ventral margins of the forefemur (4 inner, 3 outer). The male is distinguished from them by its elongate, chisel-shaped tenth tergite (Fig. 13) and by the shape of the cercus (Figs 33–34). The female of this species is unknown.

Holotype.— ♂. LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 3.

Paratypes.— 2 ♂♂. Same data as holotype.

Description.—

Head: Large tumescent eyes rising above dorsum of head and extending forward of facial plane; in dorsal view ratio of width of head at compound eyes to width of head behind compound eyes 1.17:1 to 1.25:1.

Thorax: Pronotum 2.1 to 2.7× longer than wide; metazonal suture dividing pronotum at posterior third of its length; anterior margin weakly concave, hindmargin convex; L/W pronotal disc 1.81 to 1.99.

Legs: Forelegs: Femur relatively short, stout, basally weakly inflated, tapering distally; median L/W 2.11 to 2.75; inner ventral margin with 4 spines, outer ventral margin with 3 spines; tibia with 5 spines on each margin, most basal spines arising behind tympanum. Midlegs: Femur basally weakly inflated, tapering distally, unarmed ventrally; tibia with 2 ventral spines on outer margin only. Hindlegs: Femur L/W ca 5.7 to 6.1; outer ventral margin with 2 to 4 spines, inner ventral margin with only one spine. Tibia unarmed ventrally but with 21 to 26 minute spines on outer dorsal margin and 25 to 27 spines on inner dorsal margin.

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 1; outer (anterior) 2 to 4. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 25 to 27; outer (anterior) 21 to 26.

Wings: Tegmina and hind wings well developed, extending 1.9 to 4.0 mm beyond apex of tenth tergite; hind wings extending ca 3.5 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Hind wing extending 4 to 5 mm beyond tegmen. Stridulatory file of single specimen examined with 66 teeth, 0.67 mm in length (Fig. 92).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite greatly produced distally into a flattened chisel-shaped, medially troughed elongation, with lateral margins parallel-sided, elevated, thickened; in lateral view with a keeled ventral margin (Figs 13, 14). Cercus short, thickened, recurved medially, apically armed with one dorsal apically pointed claw and two smaller ventral lobes (Figs 33, 34). Subgenital plate basally spatulate, tapering posteriorly and very elongated, apically deeply emarginated, forming two nonarticulating, closely appressed pseudostyles. ♀. Unknown.

Color. Light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Compound eyes uniformly green in vivo, or with diffuse reddish patch on dorsum.

Measurements.— Total length: ♂ (n=3) 21.88, 21.61 to 22.20; length pronotum: 4.16, 4.15 to 4.18; width pronotum: 2.22, 2.09 to 2.31; length forefemur: 4.08, 3.99 to 4.18; length midfemur: 4.56, 4.51 to 4.61; length hindfemur: 12.15, 12.04 to 12.24; width hindfemur: 2.04, 1.99 to 2.13; length tegmen: 13.34, 12.99 to 13.58; width tegmen: 1.88, 1.87 to 1.91; eye length: 1.66, 1.62 to 1.72; eye width: 1.01, 0.98 to 1.03; eye depth: 1.18, 1.14 to 1.21.

Etymology.— (Latin), adjective, scalprum – chisel, blade, referring to the unusual shape of the male tenth abdominal tergite.

Phlugis wittmani Nickle, new species (Figures 12, 35–36, 50, 63, 93)

Diagnosis.— A large, robust, broad-headed species similar in form to P. convexiterminis, P. gigantea, and P. herculi, though with shorter wings. It shares with these species the numbers of spines on the ventral margins of the forefemur (4 inner, 3 outer). Males are readily identifiable by the combination of the convex, apically produced tenth tergite (Fig. 12) and short, stout, apically bilobed cerci (Figs 35, 36).

Holotype.—♂. Peru: Loreto Prov. LODGE. Team 22. Fogging site 3.

Paratypes.— 7 ♂♂. LODGE. Team 22, Fogging sites 2, 3, 5.

Description.— Similar to P. convexitermina except as follows:

Numbers of spines on legs: Ventral margins, forefemur: inner (anterior) 4; outer (posterior) 3; midfemur inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindfemur inner (posterior) 0 to 8; outer (anterior) 1 to 13. Ventral margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 5; outer (posterior) 5; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 2; hindtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0. Dorsal margins, foretibia: inner (anterior) 0; outer (posterior) 0; midtibia inner (posterior) 0; outer (anterior) 0; hindtibia inner (posterior) 20 to 26; outer (anterior) 21 to 25.

Wings: Tegmina and wings well developed; tegmen extending 2.5 to 5 mm beyond tip of abdomen; hind wing extending 4 to 5 mm beyond apex of tegmen. Stridulatory file of single specimen examined with 54 teeth, 0.57 mm in length (Fig. 93).

Abdomen: ♂. Tenth tergite elongated, produced distally (not as long as that of convexitermina), tapering apically to a blunted point with minute spines at tip (Fig. 12). Cercus short, stout, basally cylindrical, apex expanded laterally into a very broad, medially-directed rounded lobe; distal margin of cercus convoluted and slightly thickened (Figs 35, 36). Subgenital plate greatly elongated, extending beyond tip of tenth tergite by length of cercus; apex deeply cleft, producing 2 non-articulating, apically toothed lobes (Figs 50, 63).

Color: Uniform light chartreuse green in vivo, light green to tan in preserved specimens. Light brown bases of foretibial spines, apical fifth of midtibia, and anal margin of tegmen behind stridulatory field; spines on dorsal margins of hindtibia and all tarsi dark brown.

Measurements.— in mm. Total length: ♂ (n=7) 20.9, 20.7 to 21.1; length pronotum: 3.5, 3.4 to 3.5; width pronotum: 2.0,1.9 to 2.1; length forefemur: 3.5, 3.4 to 3.6; length midfemur: 4.0, 3.9 to 4.1; length hindfemur: 11.2, 11.0 to 11.7; width hindfemur: 2.0, 2.0 to 2.1; length tegmen: 12.5, 12.3 to 12.6; width tegmen: 1.8, 1.8 to 1.9; eye length: 1.6, 1.5 to 1.6; eye width: 1.0, 0.9 to 1.0; eye depth: 1.2, 1.1 to 1.2.

Etymology.— A patronym, for Dr. Philip K. Wittman, in appreciation of his assistance in enhancing our arboreal collection techniques.

Acknowledgments

Much of the research on katydids was funded to D. A. Nickle and J. L. Castner by Earthwatch Institute, 3 Clock Tower Place, Maynard, MA, to which I express my sincere gratitude. My deep appreciation is extended to Peter Jenson, Exploraciones Amazonicas, Iquitos, Peru, and to his incredibly helpful staff for providing innumerable services to Jim Castner and me during our recurrent stays at his facilities. I continue to thank and be in touch with the many Earthwatch volunteers who helped to collect the specimens on nightly and early morning collecting forays into the rainforests of our study area. Without their help this project could not have succeeded. I sincerely appreciate Mary Dimperio, my office volunteer and friend, for her extensive help with the curation of the collection and review of this manuscript. I want to especially thank Janice McCloud for her patience and work both in the field over 3 seasons of work as a volunteer and at my office, providing curation of the collection and databasing the specimens. Finally, I wish to thank the following individuals for reviewing the manuscript: F. Christian Thompson and Douglass R. Miller, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, and James L. Castner, Department of Biology, Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS.

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Figs 1–3. Pronotum of Phlugis species, left lateral view: 1, bullatinotum, ♂; 2, celerinicta, ♂; 3, celerinicta, ♀.

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f01.gif

Figs 4–19. Male tenth tergite of Phlugis species, dorsal view (except as noted): 4, bullatinotum; 5, celerinicta; 6, chrysopa (specimen from Costa Rica), posterior; 7, chrysopoides, posterior; 8, bimaculata and bimaculoides; 9, stigmata, posterior; 10, arborea; 11, maculata; 12, wittmani; 13–14, scalpra, 13, dorsal, 14, right lateral; 15–16, glabra, 15, right lateral, 16, dorsal; 17, gigantea; 18, herculi; 19, convexitermina.

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f04.gif

Figs 20–40. Male right cercus of Phlugis species, right lateral view (except as noted): 20–21, bullatinotum, 20, lateral, 21, dorsal; 22, gracila; 23, teres; 24, celerinicta; 25, bimaculata, dorsal; 26, bimaculoides, dorsal; 27, stigmata; 28, orioni, dorsal; 29, lewisi; 30, maculata, dorsal; 31–32, arborea, 31, lateral, 32, apex dorsal; 33–34, scalpra, 33, dorsolateral, 34, posterior; 35–36, wittmani, 35, dorsolateral, 36, posterior; 37–38, gigantea, 37, lateral, 38, dorsal; 39, herculi; 40, convexitermina, dorsal.

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f20.gif

Figs 41–54. Male subgenital plate of Phlugis species, ventral view: 41, bullatinotum; 42, gracila; 43, teres; 44, celerinicta; 45, bimaculata and bimaculoides; 46, stigmata; 47, orioni; 48, maculata; 49, arborea; 50, wittmani; 51, glabra; 52, gigantea; 53, herculi; 54, convexitermina.

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f41.gif

Figs 55–67. Male subgenital plate of Phlugis species, right lateral view: 55, bullatinotum; 56, gracila; 57, teres; 58, celerinicta; 59, chrysopa (from Panama); 60, chrysopoides; 61, bimaculata and bimaculoides; 62, orioni; 63, wittmani; 64, glabra; 65, gigantea; 66, herculi; 67, convexitermina.

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f55.gif

Figs 68–77. Ovipositor of Phlugis species, left lateral view: 68, bullatinotum; 69, arborea; 70, teres; 71, celerinicta; 72, chrysopoides; 73, stigmata (bimaculata and bimaculoides are essentially the same); 74, lewisi; 75, maculata; 76, gigantea; 77, chrysopa (from Panama).

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f68.gif

Figs 78–85. Female subgenital plate of Phlugis species, ventral view: 78, bullatinotum; 79, teres; 80, celerinicta; 81, bimaculata and bimaculoides; 82, stigmata; 83, maculata; 84, arborea; 85, gigantea.

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f78.gif

Figs 86–93. Male stridulatory file of Phlugis species, ventral view: 86, bullatinotum; 87, celerinicta; 88, chrysopa (Panama); 89, arborea; 90, gigantea; 91, glabra; 92, scalpra; 93, wittmani.

i1082-6467-12-1-37-f86.gif
David A. Nickle "New neotropical species of the genus Phlugis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae)," Journal of Orthoptera Research 12(1), 37-56, (1 June 2003). https://doi.org/10.1665/1082-6467(2003)012[0037:NNSOTG]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 June 2003
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