Translator Disclaimer
1 June 2006 Three new species of South African stick insects (Phasmida)
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Three new species from the Western Cape of South Africa are described and figured: Clonaria cederbergensis, Clonaria montana (Diapheromeridae: Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini) and Macynia mcgregororum (Bacillidae: Macyniinae: Macyniini). The first two species have close associations with the Cederberg Wilderness Area and Table Mountain, respectively. M. mcgregororum has been found near Citrusdal. Keys are provided.

Introduction

As part of a detailed on-going study on South African stick insects, this paper describes two new species found on a collecting trip to the Western Cape in October 2005, and a further species present in the South African Museum, Cape Town collection. The classification used follows Otte & Brock (2005) and the Phasmida Species File Online.

During brief earlier visits to Cape Town (1998, 2000), I found undescribed material of three species from Western Cape in the South African Museum (SAMC) collection. In order to study these in detail, I decided to try to locate living material, and to obtain permits from the relevant authorities for both dead and living specimens. Accommodation was provisionally arranged at Western Cape localities in late October 2005, taking into account the known range of species and comments from entomologists. At night I collected using torchlight, by systematically searching vegetation, particularly natural vegetation (fynbos); in the daytime, a beating tray was used: both methods were successful. At ‘The Baths’, Citrusdal, a daytime find led me to locate several more insects by searching at night in the same location.

Taxonomy

Abbreviations for Depositories.—

BMNH

Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom

SAMC

South African Museum, Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa

MZLU

Museum of Zoology, Lund University, Sweden

Macynia: key to adult males

Head and pronotum yellow with green lateral bands from eyes to back of head, otherwise body mainly brownish green. Antennae green. Body length 42 to 52 mm M. labiata

Head (not pronotum) pale whitish brown, with narrow black lateral bands from eyes to back of head, otherwise body yellowish green. Antennae reddish brown. Body length 57 to 64 mm (Figs 1, 2, 5) M. mcgregororum sp. n.

Fig. 1.

M. mcgregororum holotype male.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f01.jpg

Fig. 2.

M. mcgregororum end of abdomen in holotype male, lateral view.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f02.jpg

Macynia: key to adult females

Small, rather plump. Usually green with a yellow head and pronotum, with green bands from eyes to back of head. Body mainly smooth. Antennae green. Body length 54 to 63 mm M. labiata

More elongate. Green with dark band. Body with series of prominent lateral whitish tubercles on thorax, less conspicuous on abdomen. Basal area of antennae greenish, otherwise reddish brown. Body length 73 to 84 mm (Figs 3, 4, 6) M. mcgregororum sp. n.

Fig. 3.

M. mcgregororum paratype female.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f03.jpg

Fig. 4.

M. mcgregororum end of abdomen in paratype female, lateral view.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f04.jpg

Fig. 5.

M. mcgregororum holotype male on food plant.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f05.jpg

Fig. 6.

M. mcgregororum paratype female on food plant showing tubercles on thorax.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f06.jpg

Macynia: key to eggs (Figs 8a–e)

Small capsule, dark brown with broad pale band surrounding micro-pylar plate. Capitulum pale, several strands forming a cap. Capsule length 2mm, width 1.3 mm, height 1.7 mm (Figs 8d, e) M. labiata

Larger capsule, olive with only slightly paler broad band surrounding micropylar plate. Capitulum pale brown, with several straggly strands resembling flower petals when viewed from the top of the capsule. Capsule length 2.7 mm, width 1.8 mm, height 2 mm (Figs 8a–c) M. mcgregororum

Fig. 7.

Habitat of M. mcgregororum at ‘The Baths’, with food plant overhanging track to left.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f07.jpg

Fig. 8.

M. mcgregororum eggs a) dorsal b) lateral c) from top, in comparison with M. labiata d) dorsal e) lateral.

i1082-6467-15-1-37-f08.jpg

Macynia Stål

Bacillidae, Macyniinae, Macyniini

Macynia Stål 1875b: 62. Type species: Mantis labiata Thunberg 1784, by subsequent designation of Kirby 1904.

Macynia Stål; Kirby 1904: 332; Redtenbacher 1906: 31; Zompro 2004: 263; Otte & Brock 2005: 188.

Characteristics of the genus.— Small wingless phasmids, body slightly glossy, smooth or with lateral tubercles. Antennae much shorter than fore femora. Male subgenital plate reaching about end of 9th abdominal segment. Female operculum exceeding end of 9th abdominal segment. Cerci long in males, incurved. Eggs: oval, capsule smooth. Micropylar plate more than half length of capsule. Internal micropylar plate open. Long median line present. Operculum oval, flat, with large capitulum.

Distribution.— South Africa: so far only known with certainty from Western Cape.

Species included.—M. labiata (Thunberg 1784) Western Cape: Cape Town area, as far north as Koeberg and east to Plettenburg Bay (Brock 2000). Some literature records may be suspect. M. mcgregororum sp. n. So far only known from Citrusdal area.

Comment.— Zompro 2004 placed Macynia in a new subfamily Macyniinae and gave brief characteristics (updated above), commenting that “it is very likely that a higher systematic rank is necessary, but material is too limited to allow for a definitive decision”. I am not convinced that Macynia even warrants its own subfamily and it appears that the Bacillidae have been split up without sufficient justification (the whole family only comprises 11 genera).

  • Macynia mcgregororum sp. n.

  • [McGregor's Stick-insect]

  • Figs 1–8

  • Holotype male.— (Figs 1, 2, 5) Small, elongate insect, body yellowish green with reddish brown antennae and cerci. Underside yellow. Body length 63 mm.

    Head: longer than broad, with only a few sparse granulations. Black lateral band running from alongside eye to back of head, otherwise whitish brown. Eyes small, brown. Antennae with 20 segments, reaching over half length of fore femora.

    Thorax: elongate, with a few sparse granulations dorsally and mainly laterally. Pronotum shorter than head, with bold central indentation. Mesonotum less than 5 × longer than pronotum. Metanotum shorter than mesonotum.

    Abdomen: elongate, with sparse granulations laterally. Cerci long, incurved, rounded at tip. End of subgenital plate incised at tip, reaching end of 9th abdominal segment. Anal segment as long as 9th, broadened towards tip, then subtruncate, incised in center.

    Legs: elongate, green. All femora with apices dark brown, extending to base of tibiae.

    Paratype males: (6 specimens) same as holotype except for slight differences in measurements.

    Paratype females.— (6 specimens) (Figs 3, 4, 6). Small, elongate insects, can be plump when at egg-laying peak (but much less so than the type species M. labiata). Body with series of prominent whitish tubercles laterally on thorax, less conspicuous on abdomen. Body green with reddish brown antennae (except for base) and cerci. Body length 73 to 84 mm.

    Head: longer than broad, with sparse granulations. Brown lateral band running from alongside eye to back of head, otherwise same color as body. Eyes small, brown. Antennae with 19 to 20 segments, reaching almost half length of fore femora.

    Thorax: elongate, with a few sparse granulations dorsally and mainly laterally, these being really tubercles, often whitish; otherwise thorax generally as in male.

    Abdomen: elongate, with sparse granulations dorsally and particularly laterally. Cerci slender, rounded at tip. Operculum tapering sharply to pointed tip, just exceeding end of anal segment. Anal segment longer than 9th, tip incised. Supra-anal plate visible dorsally.

    Legs: as in male.

    Egg: (Figs 8a to c) oval capsule smooth, olive with only slightly paler broad band surrounding micropylar plate. Micropylar plate long and narrow, over half length of capsule and reaching its anterior margin. A long median line present. Capitulum pale brown on a short stalk, with several straggly umbrella-like strands resembling flower petals when viewed from the capsule top. Capsule length 2.7 mm, width 1.8 mm, height 2 mm (measurements based on an examination of 10 eggs).

    Specimens examined.— Holotype ♂, South Africa: Western Cape, The Baths, Warmbadberg, nr Citrusdal, 32°45′S 19°03′E, 24.x.2005, PD Brock, SAM-PHA-A000154 (SAMC). Paratypes: ♀, South Africa: Western Cape, The Baths, Warmbadberg, nr Citrusdal, 32°45′S 19°03′E, 24.x.2005, PD Brock, SAM-PHA-A000155 (SAMC); 3 ♂, 3 ♀, same data, BMNH(E) 2005-98 (BMNH); ♂, same data, except 25.x.2005, BMNH(E) 2005-98 (BMNH); ♀, South Africa: Western Cape, Valhalla Farm, nr The Baths, Warmbadberg, nr Citrusdal, 25.x.2005, PD Brock & A Hall, BMNH(E) 2005-98; 2 ♂, ♀, South Africa: Paleisheuwel, C[ape]. P[rovince]., Mus[eum]. Exp[edition], xi.1948 (SAMC).

    Distribution.—So far only found in a small area of the Western Cape, near Citrusdal. Other phasmids from this area tend to have a limited distribution range.

    Food Plants.—Found on a straggly, as yet unidentified, native plant growing by the main track into The Baths at the foot of the mountains (Fig. 7) and on nearby farmland. In captivity adults transferred to Rubus fruticosus, Eucalyptus gunnii and Hypericum spp. If reared, a follow-up paper may be published in due course. Eggs are starting to hatch in June 2006.

    Behavior.— Well camouflaged on their food plant, lying very flat. First found by using a beating tray beneath branches. When disturbed, both sexes flop around; they may fall to the ground and try to quickly walk away. They also excrete a fluid via their mouthparts. Whilst found singly, after being placed in an all-netting circular cage with a supply of food plant leaves, they frequently paired up. Spermatophores were observed on the base of the container. Working on counter burns following a bush fire at Valhalla Farm in November 2005, Alan Hall (pers. com.) observed a few specimens of this new Macynia species land on the laborers' jackets.

    Etymology.— Named after the McGregor family, who have owned The Baths, Citrusdal for over 100 y. A fascinating history of The Baths can be found in Hall 2003. Thunberg described Macynia labiata in 1784 (locality not recorded, but probably Cape Town area), but apparently did not locate this new Macynia species during his visit to The Baths in 1773. However, Linnaeus' most distinguished pupil is, of course, better known for his major botanical contributions. Details of Thunberg's phasmid type material are included in Brock 2002.

    Clonaria Stål

    Diapheromeridae, Pachymorphinae, Gratidiini

    Clonaria Stål 1875a: 5. Type species: Bacillus natalis Westwood 1859, by subsequent designation of Kirby 1904: 337.

    Clonaria Stål; Stål 1875b: 14, 71; Brunner 1893: 89; Kirby 1904: 337; Brunner 1907: 217*; Rehn 1933: 61; Brock 2005: 29; Otte & Brock 2005: 97. *As synonym of Gratidia; however, Clonaria pre-dates Gratidia.

    = Gratidia Stål 1875b: 14, 70. Type species: Gratidia sansibara Stål 1875, by original designation, synonymised by Brunner 1907: 217.

    Gratidia Stål; Kirby 1904: 330; Brunner 1907: 217; Rehn, 1933: 61; Brock, 2005: 29; Otte & Brock 2005: 97.

    = Paraclonaria Brunner 1893: 89. Type species: Paraclonaria hamuligera Schulthess 1898, by subsequent designation of Rehn 1904, synonymised by Brunner 1907: 217.

    Paraclonaria Brunner; Rehn, 1904: 83; Kirby 1904: 335; Brunner 1907: 217; Brock, 2005: 29; Otte & Brock 2005: 97.

    Many of the 128 species of Clonaria Stål 1875, have been confused with other genera, being described in the genus Gratidia Stål or in Ramulus Saussure 1862.

    Characteristics of the genus.—Small to medium-sized wingless, elongate phasmids, remarkably so in many species. Antennae (12 to 18 segments) always very short, up to about half length of fore femora. Metanotum about the same length or longer than mesonotum. Anal segment in male truncate or slight emarginated. Female operculum variable. Cerci often incurved in male. Eggs: cigar-shaped, glued to suitable surfaces. Micropylar plate long and narrow. Distribution: throughout Africa.

  • Clonaria cederbergensis sp. n.

  • [Cederberg Stick-insect]

  • Figs 9–14

  • Holotype male.—(Figs 9,10) Elongate, small, mid to dark brown insect, with irregular whitish markings, particularly on head and thorax; bold longitudinal black median stripe present along whole of body. Body length 51 mm.

    Fig. 9.

    C. cederbergensis holotype male.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f09.jpg

    Fig. 10.

    C. cederbergensis end of abdomen in holotype male, lateral view.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f10.jpg

    Head: longer than broad, eyes small. Black stripe boldest on head and pronotum, further black lateral stripe. Antennae short, with 12 segments, reaching just under half length of fore femora; basal segment much longer and broader than segments 2 to 12.

    Thorax: pronotum slightly shorter than head, with bold central indentation. Mesonotum four and a half times longer than pronotum. Metanotum slightly longer than mesonotum.

    Abdomen: elongate. End of anal segment subtruncate. Cerci slender, incurved at tip. Subgenital plate rounded at tip, reaching end of 9th abdominal segment.

    Legs: elongate, slightly mottled.

    Paratype females.— (two specimens, one a nymph) (Figs 11–13). Slender, dark greyish-brown, with many flecks and blotches. Longitudinal median black line narrower than in male, with irregular dorsal stripes either side, almost laterally. Body length 64 mm (nymph 50 mm).

    Fig. 11.

    C. cederbergensis paratype female.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f11.jpg

    Head: as in male.

    Thorax: as in male. Appears scabrous, largely due to irregular flecks and blotches.

    Abdomen: as in male, except cerci broad, rounded at tip. End of anal segment truncate, supra-anal plate visible. Operculum short, tapered to a pointed tip, just reaching beyond end of 8th abdominal segment.

    Legs: as in male, except less elongate.

    Egg: (Fig. 14) almost cigar-shaped, heavily sculptured, rough capsule. Micropylar plate long and narrow, almost reaching opercular rim. In captivity the egg was glued by the operculum to surfaces, in a manner similar to an unrelated Mauritian species (Cliquennois & Brock 2004): not necessarily flat on the operculum, so in time it may hang by a thread. So far, in other Gratidia species, the whole egg is glued to suitable surfaces such as twigs or leaves, with no obstruction to the operculum [I have reared several African Gratidia species, including the type species C. natalis (Westwood 1859)]. Capsule length 6 mm, width 1 mm, height 0.8 mm (measurements based on an examination of five eggs).

    Fig. 12.

    C. cederbergensis end of abdomen in paratype female, lateral view.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f12.jpg

    Fig. 13.

    C. cederbergensis paratype female, well camouflaged on its food plant.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f13.jpg

    Fig. 14.

    C. cederbergensis egg views: dorsal (left) lateral (right).

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f14.jpg

    Specimens examined.Holotype ♂, S[outh] Africa: Western Cape, Cederberg Wilderness Area, nr Sanddrif, Valley of the Red Gods, 880-920m., 19°16′30″E, 32°29′S., 15.x.1995, S. van Noort, Dry Mountain Fynbos, SAM-PHA-A000147 (SAMC). Paratypes: ♀, South Africa: Western Cape, Wolfdrif, nr Pakhuis Pass, 29km NE Clanwilliam, 32°00′993″S 19°03′467″E, 21.x.2005, PD Brock, SAM-PHA-A000156; ♀ nymph, same data as holotype (SAMC).

    Distribution.—So far only found in and around the Cederberg Wilderness area.

    Food Plants.—Not yet identified. The female collected by the author only lived a few days and apparently died from old age, laying 5 eggs.

    Behavior.—Remarkably well camouflaged on vegetation.

    Etymology.— Named after the amazing Cederberg Wilderness area, well known for its interesting wildlife, including localised insect species feeding on vegetation of the dry mountain fynbos.

    Notes.— Having reviewed Clonaria species from southern Africa, I am confident that C. cederbergensis has not already been described. The genus Clonaria includes species with remarkably elongate males, such as the type species C. natalis (Westwood 1859), and species with more robust-looking males, including this new species. C. cederbergensis is reasonably closely related to C. annulata (Westwood 1859) known from the holotype male (BMNH, type locality unknown), an apparently uncommon species. Whilst Kirby 1904 listed ‘Cape’ and may have been aware of other data not included on the data label, the locality is not known. I believe it may occur in Eastern Cape. C. annulata is pale grey, with a black line from mid-head to front of mesonotum and has much shorter fore legs than C. cederbergensis.

  • Clonaria montana sp. n.

  • [Cape Mountain Stick-insect]

  • Figs 15–16

  • Holotype female.— (Figs 15–16) Elongate, small dark brown insect, slightly mottled and sparsely granulated, but rather plain. Body length 66 mm.

    Fig. 15.

    C. montana holotype female.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f15.jpg

    Head: twice as long as broad, eyes small. Faint darker lateral line from eye to back of head. Antennae very short, with 15 segments; basal segment broader than remainder.

    Thorax: pronotum much shorter than head, with bold central indentation. Mesonotum almost four times longer than pronotum. Metanotum slightly longer than mesonotum.

    Abdomen: elongate. Cerci slender, rounded at tip. End of anal segment truncate, supra-anal plate visible. Operculum short, tapered to an almost rounded tip, just reaching beyond end of 8th abdominal segment.

    Legs: elongate.

    Paratype females.— (2 specimens). As in holotype except for size differences.

    Holotype ♀, [South Africa: Western Cape], Cape Town, Table M[oun]t[ain]s, ii.[18]92, R.M.L., SAM-PHA-A000074 (SAMC).

    Paratypes: ♀, [South Africa: Western Cape], Strandfontein, iii.1950, Zinn, Hesse, SAM-PHA-A000146 (right mid leg lost), [South Africa: Western Cape], Ceres Div., Matroosberg, 3500 ft., Lightfoot, i.1917, SAM-PHA-A000054 (both in SAMC).

    Distribution.—So far only found in Western Cape in widespread localities. It is hoped that searching will reveal this species to still be present, as it was last found in 1950. My efforts to trace it were unsuccessful.

    Food Plants.— Not known.

    Behavior.— Not known.

    Male: not known for certain, although I believe this is the 54mm Ramulus sp. single male discussed by Günther 1956, collected in Rondesbosch, 25.i.1951 (MZLU). The specimen is in poor condition, with most of the antennae lost, and no fore and hind legs [examined briefly], hence I am reluctant to regard it as part of the type series.

    Etymology.— Named after ‘mountain’, although it is not known whether this specimen was found in the foothills of Table Mountain or at higher altitude. The common name ‘Cape Mountain Stick-insect’ also relates to the type locality, where it is hoped this insect still survives. I did not have time to make an extensive search for it at Table Mountain, but have briefly searched at various altitudes on many plants, finding other phasmids, Macynia labiata (Thunberg 1784) and Phalces brevis (Burmeister 1838), in abundance, mainly nymphs. It is likely that C. montana feeds on different food plants and may be difficult to find except by searching at night.

    Notes.— See comments in ‘notes’ above for C. cederbergensis, from which C. montana is readily distinguished by its plain color and more elongate head.

    Conclusion

    Whilst these descriptions of new species derive from all unidentified Western Cape material in major South African museums, other species may have been overlooked in the wild. Phasmids are well worth searching for in little-known localities, either by beating or by torchlight. Some phasmid enthusiasts do not look for these insects at all in the daytime, because they tend to be difficult to spot. However, using a beating tray can be rewarding for phasmids, with 4 out of 6 species collected in Western Cape during October 2005 located using that method, including the new Macynia species.

    Fig. 16.

    C. montana end of abdomen in holotype female, lateral view.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-f16.jpg

    Table 1.

    Measurements (mm) of M. mcgregororum of holotype. Ranges of paratypes (with mean body length).

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-t01.gif

    Table 2.

    Measurements of C. cederbergensis (mm).

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-t02.gif

    Table 3.

    Measurements (mm) of C. montana.

    i1082-6467-15-1-37-t03.gif

    Acknowledgments

    I thank the following contacts for their assistance and/or observations: G. Beccaloni, J. Marshall (Natural History Museum, London), B. Dowbrowsky, R. Toms (Transvaal Museum, Pretoria), C. Griffiths, M. Picker (University of Cape Town), A. Hall (The Baths, Citrusdal), H. Robertson, S. van Noort (South African Museum, Iziko Museums of Cape Town), C. Turner (Plymouth, UK), R. Urban (National Collection of Insects, Pretoria). The following kindly arranged collecting permits: Z. King [Cape Nature (Western Cape Province)], R. du Plessis (Cederberg Wilderness & Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve), H. Blumerius, C. Cheny (Table Mountain National Park).

    References

    1. P. D. Brock 2000. Stick-insects (Phasmida) from the Cape Town area, South Africa. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 59:2–13. pl. 00a-d. Google Scholar

    2. P. D. Brock 2002. Linnaean stick and leaf insect type material (Insecta: Phasmida). Le Bulletin de Phyllie 11:3–8. (French translation 9–14). Google Scholar

    3. P. D. Brock 2005. A new genus and four new species of South African stick insects. Phasmid Studies 12:25–37. Google Scholar

    4. K. Brunner 1893. Révision du système des Orthoptères et description des espèces rapportées par M. Leonardo Fea de Birmanie. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 13:1–230. pl. 1-6. Google Scholar

    5. K. Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907. In Die Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden II (Brunner von Wattenwyl, K. and Redtenbacher, J. 1906–1908). pp. 181–338. pls. 7-16. W. Engelmann. Leipzig. Google Scholar

    6. H. Burmeister 1838. Handbuch der Entomologie. T.C.F. Enslin. Berlin. Google Scholar

    7. N. Cliquennois 2004. À propos des Gratidiini: notes critiques (Phasmatodea, Anareolatae). Le Bulletin de Phyllie 22:12–28. Google Scholar

    8. N. Cliquennois and P. D. Brock . 2004. Phasmids of Mauritius: Mauritiophasma n. gen., Monoiognosis n. gen., Epicharmus Stål 1875 and discussion on their remarkable eggs (Phasmatodea). Journal of Orthoptera Research 13:1–13. Google Scholar

    9. K. Günther 1956. Phasmatoptera. pp 87–93. In: B. Hanstrom, P. Brink, and G. Rudebeck , editors. (Eds]. South African Animal Life 3. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm. Google Scholar

    10. H. Hall 2003. Taking the waters. The history of the Olifants River warm baths, Western Cape. The Baths (Pty) Ltd, Citrusdal. Google Scholar

    11. W. F. Kirby 1904. A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. Vol. 1, Orthoptera, Euplexoptera, Cursoria, et Gressoria (Forficulidae, Hemimeridae, Blattidae, Mantidae, Phasmidae). Longman & Co. London. Google Scholar

    12. D. Otte and P. Brock . 2005. Phasmida Species File. A Catalog of the Stick and Leaf Insects of the World. The Insect Diversity Association and the Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia. Google Scholar

    13. J. Redtenbacher 1906. In Die Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden I. (Brunner von Wattenwyl, K. and Redtenbacher, J. 1906–1908). pp. 1–180. pls. 1-6. W. Engelmann. Leipzig. Google Scholar

    14. J. A. G. Rehn 1904. Studies in the Orthopterous family Phasmidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 56:38–107. Google Scholar

    15. J. A. G. Rehn 1933. Dermaptera and Orthoptera of the Schauensee South African expedition, Part 1. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 85:61–66. pl. 1. Google Scholar

    16. H. Saussure [}1862]}. Études sur quelques Orthoptères du Musée de Genève nouveaux ou imparfaitement connus. Annales de la Sociètè entomologique de France 41:459–494. pl. 11-12. Google Scholar

    17. C. Stål 1875a. Recherches sur le systeme des phasmides. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 2:1–19. Google Scholar

    18. C. Stål 1875b. Recensio Orthopterorum. Revue critique des Orthoptères décrits par Linné, de Geer et Thunberg. Vol. 3.P.A. Norstedt & Söner. Stockholm. Google Scholar

    19. C. P. Thunberg 1784. Dissertatio entomologia novas insectorum species sistens. Insects 3.  Google Scholar

    20. J. O. Westwood 1859. Catalogue of Orthopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Part 1, Phasmidae. British Museum. London. Google Scholar

    21. O. Zompro 2004. Review of the genera of the Areolatae, including the status of Timema and Agathemera (Insecta, Phasmatodea). Goecke & Evers, Keltern-Weiler. Germany. Google Scholar

    Paul D. Brock "Three new species of South African stick insects (Phasmida)," Journal of Orthoptera Research 15(1), 37-44, (1 June 2006). https://doi.org/10.1665/1082-6467(2006)15[37:TNSOSA]2.0.CO;2
    Published: 1 June 2006
    JOURNAL ARTICLE
    8 PAGES


    SHARE
    ARTICLE IMPACT
    Back to Top